Abstract

In this paper, a numerical investigation on the limits of the optical frequency shift keying (FSK) label coding technique is presented, as well as an optimization of the critical parameters involved into it. The principle of the technique concerns a typical FSK modulated label, combined with an intensity modulated (IM) payload on the same optical carrier, via four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Simulations have been carried out for an intensity modulated nonreturn to zero (NRZ) 10-Gbs payload combined with a 625-Mbs FSK modulated header. The influence of the key parameters of the method such as the extinction ratio (ER) of the signal, the dynamic range of the FWM module and the FSK tone spacing have been investigated in combination with the system limitations,related to the propagating distance and the number of intermediate label swapping nodes. A 2R regeneration stage responsible for the label removal and reinsertion,and for the payload wavelength conversion and regeneration, has been adopted,based on a single Mach-Zender interferometer (MZI)-SOA stage. The FSK encoded label transmitter includes a compensation scheme for the removal of the residual amplitude intensity effect that FSK label causes on the IM modulated payload. A detailed numerical model has been implemented for the description of the FWM, due to its decisive role in the proposed architecture. It was found that it is possible to have successful (Q factor higher than 6 for both payload and header) transmission over five, 50-km spaced hops and assuming 10-Gbs payload with 625-Mbs header.

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  27. H. Simos, A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, "Investigation of a 2R all optical regenerator based on four wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, pp. 1-9, Jan. 2004.
  28. A. E. Willner, M. Kuznetsov, I. P. Kaminov, J. Stone, L. W. Stultz and C. A. Burrus, "FM amd FSK response of a tunable two electrode DFB laser and their performance with non coherent detection", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 412 -415, Dec. 1989.
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  30. C. Joergensen, et al. "All optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 3, pp. 1168-1180, Oct. 1997.

Other (30)

A. Viswanathan, N. Feldman, Z. Wang and R. Callon, "Evolution of multiprotocol label switching", IEEE Commun. Mag. , vol. 36, pp. 165-173, May 1998.

A. Banerjee, et al. "Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements", IEEE Commun. Mag. , pp. 144-150, Jan. 2001.

T. Koonen, G. Morthier, J. Jennen, H. de Waardt and P. Demeester, "Optical packet routing in IP-over-WDM networks deploying two-level optical labeling", in ECOC, 2001.

D. J. Blumenthal, et al. "All optical label swapping networks and technologies", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, pp. 2058-2075, Dec. 2000.

H. J. Lee, S. J. B. Yoo, V. K. Tsui and S. K. H. Fong, "A simple all optical label detection and swapping technique incorporating a fiber Bragg grating filter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 635-637, Jun. 2001.

G. Rossi, O. Jerphagnon, B. Olsson and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical SCM data extraction using a fiber loop mirror for WDM network systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 897-899, Jul. 2000.

Y. M. Lin, W. I. May and E. K. Chang, "A novel optical label swapping technique using erasable optical single sideband subcarrier label", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1088-1090, Aug. 2000.

A. Okada, "All optical packet routing in AWG based wavelength routing networks using an out of band filter", in Proc. OFC'02, vol. 1, Wash., DC, 2002, pp. 213-215.

N. Wada, H. Harai, W. Chujo and F. Kubota, "Multihop, 40 Gbits variable length photonic packet routing based on multiwavelength label switching, waveband routing and label swapping", in Proc. OFC'02, vol. 1, Wash., DC, 2002, pp. 216-217.

X. Jiang, K. M. Feng, M. Cardakli, J. X. Cai, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov and J. Feinberg, "Control monitoring of routing bits and data packets in WDM networks using wavelength to time mapping", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1186-1188, Sep. 1999.

M. C. Cardakli, S. Lee, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. Starodubov and J. Feinberg, "Reconfigurable optical packet header recognition and routing using time-to-wavelength mapping and tunable fiber Bragg gratings for correlation decoding", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 552-554, May 2000.

D. Gurkan, et al. "Simultaneous label swapping and wavelength conversion of multiple independent WDM channels in all optical MPLS using PPLN waveguides as wavelength converters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, pp. 2739-2745, Nov. 2003.

T. Fjelde, A. Kloch, D. Wolfson, B. Dagens, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Poingt and M. Renaud, "Novel scheme for simple label swapping employing XOR logic in an integrated interferometric wavelength converter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 750 -752, Jul. 2001.

X. Jiang, X. P. Chen and A. E. Willner, "All optical wavelength independent packet header replacement using a long CW region generated directly from the packet flag", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1638 -1640, Nov. 1998.

K. Kitayama and N. Wada, "Photonic IP routing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1669-1671, Dec. 1999.

N. Calabretta, Y. Liu, H. Waardt, G. D. Khoe and H. J. S. Donren, "All optical header payload separator", in ECOC, 2002.

S. Aleksic and V. Krajinovic, "Comparison of optical code correlators for all optical MPLS", in ECOC, 2002.

S. Bjornstad, M. Nord and D. R. Hjelme, "QoS differentiation and header payload separation in optical packet switching using polarization multiplexing", in ECOC, 2003.

J. Yu and G. K. Chang, "A novel technique for optical label and payload generation and multiplexing using optical carrier suppression and separation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 320 -322, Jan. 2004.

K. Vlachos, et al. "An optical IM/FSK coding technique for the implementation of a label controlled arrayed waveguide packet router", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, pp. 2617-2628, Nov. 2003.

T. Monroy, et al. "Performance of a SOA-MZI wavelength converter for label swapping using combined FSK/IM modulation format", Elsevier, Opt. Fiber Technol., pp. 1-19, Sep. 2003.

J. Zhang, N. Pablo, V. Nielsen, C. Peucheret and P. Jeppesen, "Performance of Manchester coded payload in an optical FSK labeling scheme", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1174-1176, Aug. 2003.

E. N. Lallas, N. Skarmoutsos and D. Syvridis, "An optical FSK based label coding technique for the realization of the all optical label swapping", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1472-1474, Oct. 2002.

T. Koonen, Sulur, I. T. Monroy, J. Jennen and H. de Waart, "Optical labeling of packets in IP-over-WDM networks", in ECOC, 2002.

J. Zhang, N. Pablo, V. Nielsen, C. Peucheret and P. Jeppesen, "An optical FSK transmitter based on an integrated DFB laser EA modulator and its application in optical labeling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 984-986, Jul. 2003.

N. Chi, J. Zhang, N. Pablo, V. Nielsen, C. Peucheret and P. Jeppesen, "Transmission and transparent wavelength conversion of an optically labeled signal using ASK/DPSK orthogonal modulation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 760 -762, May 2003.

H. Simos, A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, "Investigation of a 2R all optical regenerator based on four wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, pp. 1-9, Jan. 2004.

A. E. Willner, M. Kuznetsov, I. P. Kaminov, J. Stone, L. W. Stultz and C. A. Burrus, "FM amd FSK response of a tunable two electrode DFB laser and their performance with non coherent detection", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 412 -415, Dec. 1989.

A. E. Willner, "Simplified model of an FSK to ASK direct detection system using a Fabry Perot demodulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 363-366, May 1990.

C. Joergensen, et al. "All optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 3, pp. 1168-1180, Oct. 1997.

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