Abstract

A simple analytical expression for the optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) benefit expected from adding forward Raman gain to backward Raman gain in a fiber transmission span is derived. This result is then applied to modify the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold for the case of a signal experiencing forward Raman gain. These concepts are applied to demonstrate repeaterless transmission of 10 and 40 Gb/s data rates over standard single mode fiber (SSMF).

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. D. N. Maywar, D. F. Grosz, A. Kung, L. Altman, M. Movassaghi, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee and T. H. Wood, "Ultra-wide-band transmission of 1.28 Tb/s (128 lambda x 10.7 Gb/s) over 2000 km using 50% RZ data", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 24, pp. 1573-1575, 2002.
  2. R.-J. Essiambre, "Effects of raman noise and double Rayleigh backscattering on bidirectionally Raman-pumped systems at constant fiber nonlinearity", in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC'01), vol. 2, Amsterdam, Netherlands,Oct. 1-4 2001, pp. 108-109.
  3. R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering", Appl. Opt., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 2489-2494, 1972.
  4. T. Terahara, T. Hoshida, J. Kumasako and H. Onaka, "128 x 10.66 Gb/s transmission over 840 km standard SMF with 140 km optical repeater spacing (30.4 dB loss) employing dual-band distributed Raman amplification", in Proc. OFC 2000, MD, 2000.
  5. T. Miyakawa, I. Morita, K. Tanaka, H. Sakata and N. Edagawa, "2.56 Tb/s (40 Gb/s x 64 WDM) unrepeatered 230 km transmission with 0.8 bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency using low-noise fiber Raman amplifier and 170 µ m² Aeff fiber", in Proc. OFC 2001, CA, 2001.
  6. R. E. Neuhauser, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, C. Fuerst, A. Faerbert and H. Rohde, "New remote pump scheme enabling high-capacity (3.2 Tb/s) unrepeatered C+ L band transmission over 220 km", in Proc. OFC 2002, CA, 2002.
  7. L. Labrunie, M. Benomar, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, D. Dufournet and V. Havard, "3.2 Tb/s (320 x 10.66 Gb/s) C+ L unrepeatered transmission over 310 km using a low noise distributed Raman amplification", in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002.
  8. J. Bromage, J.-C. Bouteiller, H. J. Thiele, K. Brar, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, C. Headley, J. Kim, A. Klein, G. Baynham, L. V. Jorgensen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. L. LingleJr. and D. J. DiGiovanni, "High co-directional Raman gain for 200 km spans, enabling 40x 10.77 Gb/s transmission over 2400 km", in Proc. OFC 2003, GA, 2003.
  9. J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage, H.-J. Thiele, L. E. Nelson, K. Brar and S. Stulz, "An optimization process for Raman amplifies long-span transmission", Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 326-328, 2004.
  10. Y. Zhu, W. S. Lee, C. R. S. Fludger and A. Hadjifotiou, "All-Raman unrepeatered transmission of 1.28 Tbit/s (32 x 40 Gbit/s) over 240 km conventional 80-µ m² NDSF employing bi-directional pumping", in Proc. OFC 2002, CA, 2002.
  11. A. Kobyakov, M. Mehendale, M. vasilyev, S. Tsuda and A. F. Evans, "Stimulated brilloiun scattering in Raman-pumped fibers: A theoretical approach", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1635-1643, 2002.

Other (11)

D. N. Maywar, D. F. Grosz, A. Kung, L. Altman, M. Movassaghi, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee and T. H. Wood, "Ultra-wide-band transmission of 1.28 Tb/s (128 lambda x 10.7 Gb/s) over 2000 km using 50% RZ data", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 24, pp. 1573-1575, 2002.

R.-J. Essiambre, "Effects of raman noise and double Rayleigh backscattering on bidirectionally Raman-pumped systems at constant fiber nonlinearity", in Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC'01), vol. 2, Amsterdam, Netherlands,Oct. 1-4 2001, pp. 108-109.

R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering", Appl. Opt., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 2489-2494, 1972.

T. Terahara, T. Hoshida, J. Kumasako and H. Onaka, "128 x 10.66 Gb/s transmission over 840 km standard SMF with 140 km optical repeater spacing (30.4 dB loss) employing dual-band distributed Raman amplification", in Proc. OFC 2000, MD, 2000.

T. Miyakawa, I. Morita, K. Tanaka, H. Sakata and N. Edagawa, "2.56 Tb/s (40 Gb/s x 64 WDM) unrepeatered 230 km transmission with 0.8 bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency using low-noise fiber Raman amplifier and 170 µ m² Aeff fiber", in Proc. OFC 2001, CA, 2001.

R. E. Neuhauser, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, C. Fuerst, A. Faerbert and H. Rohde, "New remote pump scheme enabling high-capacity (3.2 Tb/s) unrepeatered C+ L band transmission over 220 km", in Proc. OFC 2002, CA, 2002.

L. Labrunie, M. Benomar, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, D. Dufournet and V. Havard, "3.2 Tb/s (320 x 10.66 Gb/s) C+ L unrepeatered transmission over 310 km using a low noise distributed Raman amplification", in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002.

J. Bromage, J.-C. Bouteiller, H. J. Thiele, K. Brar, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, C. Headley, J. Kim, A. Klein, G. Baynham, L. V. Jorgensen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. L. LingleJr. and D. J. DiGiovanni, "High co-directional Raman gain for 200 km spans, enabling 40x 10.77 Gb/s transmission over 2400 km", in Proc. OFC 2003, GA, 2003.

J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage, H.-J. Thiele, L. E. Nelson, K. Brar and S. Stulz, "An optimization process for Raman amplifies long-span transmission", Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 326-328, 2004.

Y. Zhu, W. S. Lee, C. R. S. Fludger and A. Hadjifotiou, "All-Raman unrepeatered transmission of 1.28 Tbit/s (32 x 40 Gbit/s) over 240 km conventional 80-µ m² NDSF employing bi-directional pumping", in Proc. OFC 2002, CA, 2002.

A. Kobyakov, M. Mehendale, M. vasilyev, S. Tsuda and A. F. Evans, "Stimulated brilloiun scattering in Raman-pumped fibers: A theoretical approach", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1635-1643, 2002.

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