Abstract

In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally investigate the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-based WDM ring networks with free amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light recirculation. We show that, with proper network and amplifier design, the lasing light generated by free ASE recirculation within the looped network provides an effective gain clamping technique, ensuring limited signal power excursions under WDM channels add-drop operations. Considering a ring network composed of eight fiber sections and eight EDFAs, maximum signal power overshoots below 2.5dB have been measured under 23/24 WDM channels drop. Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) analysis and bit-error rate (BER) measurement at 10 Gb/s confirm acceptable performances and negligible penalties due to polarization effects and relative intensity noise transfer from laser light to WDM signals. We also propose and demonstrate a new link control technique which overcomes the main limiting factors of such networks, respectively, related to OSNR degradation, stability and survivability to fiber and EDFA breakages.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. M. Islam, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 1, Physical Principles and Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 2, Sub-Systems and Systems, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003.
  2. P. Iannone and K. Reichmann, "In-service up-grade of an amplified 130-km metro CWDM transmission systems using single LOA with 140 nm bandwidth", in OFC, Atlanta, GA, 2003.
  3. Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Signal power variations in optically amplified WDM ring networks", in ECOC, 1997, pp. 135-137.
  4. M. Karasek, A. Bononi, L. R. Rusch and M. Menif, "Gain stabilization in gain clamped EDFA cascades fed by WDM burst-mode packet traffic", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 308-313, Mar. 2000.
  5. W. Xin, G. K. Chang, B. W. Meagher, S. J. B. Yoo, J. L. Jackel, J. C. Young, H. Dai and G. Ellinas, "Chaotic lasing effect in a closed cycle in transparent wavelength division multiplexed networks", in OFC, 1999, pp. 246-248.
  6. A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1667-1669, Dec. 1997.
  7. G. Sacchi, S. Sugliani, A. Bogoni, A. D'Errico, F. Di Pasquale, R. Di Muro, R. Magri, G. Bruno and F. Cavaliere, "Link control and survivability in EDFA based WDM ring networks with ASE light re-circulation", in ECOC, Stokolm, Sweden, 2004.
  8. A. Bononi and L. A. Rusch, "Doped-fiber amplifier dynamics: A system perspective", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 945-956, May 1998.
  9. C. R. Giles, C. A. Burrus, D. J. Di Giovanni, N. K. Dutta and G. Raybon, "Characterization of erbium-doped fibers and applications to modeling 980-nm and 1480-nm pumped amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 363-365, Apr. 1991.
  10. G. Sacchi, S. Sugliani, A. Bogoni, A. D'Errico, F. Di Pasquale, R. Di Muro, R. Magri, G. Bruno and F. Cavaliere, "Effective transient control by free ASE light re-circulation in EDFA based WDM ring networks", in OpNeTec, Pisa, Italy, 2004.
  11. V. J. Mazurczyk and J. L. Zyskind, "Polarization dependent gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 616-618, May 1994.
  12. G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, J. A. Nagel and M. A. Ali, "Experimental and theoretical analysis of relaxation-oscillations and spectral hole burning effects in all-optical gain-clamped EDFA's for WDM networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 527-533, Apr. 1998.
  13. P. Kim, S. Bae, J. Kim, H. Choi, S. J. Ahn, H. G. Woo and N. Park, "Analysis of the network oscillations in the amplified WDM ring network-Dependency on the channel power equalizer speed and network span length", in OFC, 2000, pp. 59-61.

Other

M. Islam, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 1, Physical Principles and Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 2, Sub-Systems and Systems, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003.

P. Iannone and K. Reichmann, "In-service up-grade of an amplified 130-km metro CWDM transmission systems using single LOA with 140 nm bandwidth", in OFC, Atlanta, GA, 2003.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Signal power variations in optically amplified WDM ring networks", in ECOC, 1997, pp. 135-137.

M. Karasek, A. Bononi, L. R. Rusch and M. Menif, "Gain stabilization in gain clamped EDFA cascades fed by WDM burst-mode packet traffic", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 308-313, Mar. 2000.

W. Xin, G. K. Chang, B. W. Meagher, S. J. B. Yoo, J. L. Jackel, J. C. Young, H. Dai and G. Ellinas, "Chaotic lasing effect in a closed cycle in transparent wavelength division multiplexed networks", in OFC, 1999, pp. 246-248.

A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, J. Ellson, G. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, C. Wolf and J. R. Pedrazzani, "Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multiwavelength optical networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1667-1669, Dec. 1997.

G. Sacchi, S. Sugliani, A. Bogoni, A. D'Errico, F. Di Pasquale, R. Di Muro, R. Magri, G. Bruno and F. Cavaliere, "Link control and survivability in EDFA based WDM ring networks with ASE light re-circulation", in ECOC, Stokolm, Sweden, 2004.

A. Bononi and L. A. Rusch, "Doped-fiber amplifier dynamics: A system perspective", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 945-956, May 1998.

C. R. Giles, C. A. Burrus, D. J. Di Giovanni, N. K. Dutta and G. Raybon, "Characterization of erbium-doped fibers and applications to modeling 980-nm and 1480-nm pumped amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 363-365, Apr. 1991.

G. Sacchi, S. Sugliani, A. Bogoni, A. D'Errico, F. Di Pasquale, R. Di Muro, R. Magri, G. Bruno and F. Cavaliere, "Effective transient control by free ASE light re-circulation in EDFA based WDM ring networks", in OpNeTec, Pisa, Italy, 2004.

V. J. Mazurczyk and J. L. Zyskind, "Polarization dependent gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 616-618, May 1994.

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, J. A. Nagel and M. A. Ali, "Experimental and theoretical analysis of relaxation-oscillations and spectral hole burning effects in all-optical gain-clamped EDFA's for WDM networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 527-533, Apr. 1998.

P. Kim, S. Bae, J. Kim, H. Choi, S. J. Ahn, H. G. Woo and N. Park, "Analysis of the network oscillations in the amplified WDM ring network-Dependency on the channel power equalizer speed and network span length", in OFC, 2000, pp. 59-61.

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