In this paper, we propose a new modulation scheme based on combining frequency and polarization modulated signals, which we will refer to as hybrid frequency-polarization shift keying (FPolSK). The FPolSK modulation is basically an extension of the conventional M-PolSK modulation over orthogonal domains. This expansion enables representing signal constellation points over multidimensional space, which ensures increasing the geometric distances between these points, and in turn, improving the system power efficiency. On the other hand, compared with M-FSK modulation, FPolSK improves the bandwidth efficiency by employing less number of orthogonal frequencies to represent information symbols. Moreover, FPolSK is extremely useful for implementing communication systems that have limitations in power and bandwidth usage. This advantage comes from the fact that FPolSK inherently enables selecting the appropriate number of orthogonal frequencies that convey with system constraints. The contribution in this paper is threefold. First,we propose a design for the transmitter and the receiver of the FPolSK technique. Second, we perform analysis for the system power and bandwidth efficiencies. Third, we derive an expression for the system power spectral density (PSD). A performance comparison between the FPolSK modulation technique and previously developed techniques is also presented in this paper. Our results reveal that the proposed modulation scheme performs better than M-PolSK, M-DPSK, and M-FSK modulation schemes in terms of both power and bandwidth efficiencies. We have also found that same bandwidth efficiency can be obtained using different FPolSK modulation formats, and the PSD of the FPolSK modulation does not contain discrete components that are considered as a waste of power. Finally, the effects of the laser phase noise and fiber dispersion on the performance of the proposed modulation are also discussed in detail.
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