Abstract

The performance of a wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) optical network can be severely degraded due to fiber nonlinear effects. In the case where nonzero dispersion (NZD) fibers are employed, the four-wave mixing (FWM) effect sets an upper limit on the input power, especially in the case of narrow channel spacing. In order to reduce FWM-induced distortion two new techniques,the hybrid amplitude-/frequency-shift keying (ASK/FSK) modulation and the use of prechirped pulses are investigated. It is shown that both techniques can greatly improve the Q-factor in a 10 Gb/s WDM system. This happens even for very high input powers (~ 10 dBm), where the degradation of the conventional WDM system is prohibitively high. The proposed methods are also applied and tested in higher bit rates (40 Gb/s). It is deduced that although the hybrid ASK/FSK modulation technique marginally improves the system performance, the optical prechirp technique can still be used to greatly increase the maximum allowable input power of the system.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. New York: Academic, 1995.
  2. A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Cross-phase modulation in intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 178-190, Feb. 1999.
  3. R. Hui, K. R. Demarest and C. T. Allen, "Cross-phase modulation in multispan WDM optical fiber systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1018-1026, Jun. 1999.
  4. K. Inoue, "Suppression technique for fiber four-wave mixing using optical multi-/demultiplexers and a delay line", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 455-461, Mar. 1993.
  5. K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki and H. Ikeda, "FWM crosstalk reduction using bit-phase arranged RZ (BARZ) signals in WDM systems", in Proc. Optoelectronics Communications Conf. (OECC) '96, 1996, Paper 17B2-4,. pp. 114-115.
  6. A. Okada, V. Curri, S. M. Gemelos and L. G. Kazovsky, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk using a novel hybrid WDM/TDM technique", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC'98), 1998, pp. 289-290.
  7. K. Sekine, S. Sasaki and N. Kikuchi, "10 Gbit/s four-channel wavelength-and polarization-division multiplexing transmission over 340 km with 0.5 nm channel spacing", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 49-50, 1995.
  8. F. Forghieri, R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy and D. Marcuse, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 754-756, Jun. 1994.
  9. H. Suzuki, S. Ohteru and N. Takachio, "22 x 10 Gb/s WDM transmission based on extended method of unequally channel allocation around the zero-dispersion wavelength region", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1677-1679, Dec. 1999.
  10. A. Boskovic, S. Ten and V. L. da Silva, "FWM penalty reduction in dense WDM systems through channel detuning", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC'98), 1998, pp. 163-164.
  11. P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, M. M. Strasser and W. R. Leeb, "Optimum filter bandwidths for optically preamplified NRZ recievers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1263-1273, Sep. 2001.
  12. M. K. Smit and C. Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles and applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 236-250, Jun. 1996.
  13. B. Xu and M. Brandt-Pearce, "Comparison of FWM-and XPM-induced crosstalk using the Volterra series transfer function method", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 40-53, Jan. 2003.
  14. S. Kumar, G. Luther and J. Hurley, "Finite-band noise theory and experiment for four-wave mixing in RZ transmission systems", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), vol. 3, 2001, pp. WW6-1-WW6-4.
  15. A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, S. Kuwahara and H. Toba, "A 40 Gb/s/ch WDM transmission with SPM/XPM suppression through prechirping and dispersion management", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1519-1527, Nov. 2000.
  16. A. Sano and Y. Miyamoto, "Performance evaluation of prechirped RZ and CS-RZ formats in high-speed transmission systems with dispersion management", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1864-1871, Dec. 2001.

Other (16)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. New York: Academic, 1995.

A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Cross-phase modulation in intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 178-190, Feb. 1999.

R. Hui, K. R. Demarest and C. T. Allen, "Cross-phase modulation in multispan WDM optical fiber systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1018-1026, Jun. 1999.

K. Inoue, "Suppression technique for fiber four-wave mixing using optical multi-/demultiplexers and a delay line", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 455-461, Mar. 1993.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki and H. Ikeda, "FWM crosstalk reduction using bit-phase arranged RZ (BARZ) signals in WDM systems", in Proc. Optoelectronics Communications Conf. (OECC) '96, 1996, Paper 17B2-4,. pp. 114-115.

A. Okada, V. Curri, S. M. Gemelos and L. G. Kazovsky, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk using a novel hybrid WDM/TDM technique", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC'98), 1998, pp. 289-290.

K. Sekine, S. Sasaki and N. Kikuchi, "10 Gbit/s four-channel wavelength-and polarization-division multiplexing transmission over 340 km with 0.5 nm channel spacing", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 49-50, 1995.

F. Forghieri, R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy and D. Marcuse, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 754-756, Jun. 1994.

H. Suzuki, S. Ohteru and N. Takachio, "22 x 10 Gb/s WDM transmission based on extended method of unequally channel allocation around the zero-dispersion wavelength region", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1677-1679, Dec. 1999.

A. Boskovic, S. Ten and V. L. da Silva, "FWM penalty reduction in dense WDM systems through channel detuning", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC'98), 1998, pp. 163-164.

P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, M. M. Strasser and W. R. Leeb, "Optimum filter bandwidths for optically preamplified NRZ recievers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1263-1273, Sep. 2001.

M. K. Smit and C. Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles and applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 236-250, Jun. 1996.

B. Xu and M. Brandt-Pearce, "Comparison of FWM-and XPM-induced crosstalk using the Volterra series transfer function method", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 40-53, Jan. 2003.

S. Kumar, G. Luther and J. Hurley, "Finite-band noise theory and experiment for four-wave mixing in RZ transmission systems", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), vol. 3, 2001, pp. WW6-1-WW6-4.

A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, S. Kuwahara and H. Toba, "A 40 Gb/s/ch WDM transmission with SPM/XPM suppression through prechirping and dispersion management", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1519-1527, Nov. 2000.

A. Sano and Y. Miyamoto, "Performance evaluation of prechirped RZ and CS-RZ formats in high-speed transmission systems with dispersion management", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1864-1871, Dec. 2001.

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