Abstract

This paper describes a software-synchronized all-optical sampling system that presents synchronous eye diagrams and data patterns as well as calculates accurate Q values without requiring clock recovery. A synchronization algorithm is presented that calculates the offset frequency between the data bit rate and the sampling rate, and as a result, synchronous eye diagrams can be presented. The algorithm is shown to be robust toward poor signal quality and adds less than 100-fs timing drift to the eye diagrams. An extension of the software synchronization algorithm makes it possible to automatically find the pattern length of a periodic data pattern in a data signal. As a result, individual pulses can be investigated and detrimental effects present on the data signal can be identified. Noise averaging can also be applied. To measure accurate Q values without clock recovery, a high sampling rate is required in order to establish the noise statistics of the measured signal before any timing drift occurs. This paper presents a system with a 100-MHz sampling rate that measures accurate Q values at bit rates as high as 160 Gb/s. The high bandwidth of the optical sampling system also contributes to sampling more noise, which in turn results in lower Q values compared with conventional electrical sampling with a lower bandwidth. A theory that estimates the optically sampled Q values as a function of the sampling gate width is proposed and experimentally verified.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. I. Shake, E. Otani, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, Y. Yamabayashi and T. Morioka, "Bit rate flexible quality monitoring of 10 to 160 Gbit/s optical signals based on optical sampling technique", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 2087-2089, 2000.
  2. J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gbit/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 987 -989, Sep. 2001.
  3. C. Schmidt, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, T. Yamamoto, C. Schubert, J. Berger, M. Kroh, H.-J. Ehrke, E. Dietrich, C. Börner, R. Ludwig and H. G. Weber, "Complete optical sampling system with broad gap-free spectral range for 160 Gbit/s and 320 Gbit/s and its application in a transmission system", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), 2002, Paper ThU1,. pp. 528-529.
  4. H. Ohta, N. Banjo, N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa and Y. Yanagisawa, "Measuring eye diagram of 320 Gbit/s optical signal by optical sampling using passively modelocked fiber laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 1541-1542, 2001.
  5. T. Yamamoto, L. K. Oxenløwe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, J. Berger, R. Ludwig and H. G. Weber, "Clock recovery from 160 Gbit/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 509-510, 2001.
  6. M. Shirane, Y. Hashimoto, H. Kurita, H. Yamada and H. Yokoyama, "Optical sampling measurement with all-optical clock recovery using mode-locked diode lasers", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2000), 2000, Paper MG2,. pp. 1-3.
  7. M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2003), 2003, WP6,. pp. 409-410.
  8. M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "160 Gb/s optical data pattern monitoring using a software-synchronized all-optical sampling system", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication Conf. (ECOC 2003), 2003, Paper Mo3.6.2,. pp. 48-49.
  9. M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, J. Hansryd, J. Li, P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "All-optical synchronous Q-measurements for ultra-high speed transmission systems", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), 2002, ThU2,. pp. 530 -531.
  10. H. Ohta, S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi and Y. Endo, "Measurement of 200 Gbit/s optical eye diagram by optical sampling with gain switched optical pulse", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 737-739, 2000.
  11. H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, A. Yokoo, S. Tomaru, T. Kitoh and M. Saruwatari, "100 Gbit/s optical signal eye-diagram measurement with optical sampling using organic nonlinear optical crystal", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 2256-2258, 1996.
  12. S. Nogiwa, H. Ohta, Y. Kawaguchi and Y. Endo, "Improvement of sensitivity in optical sampling system", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 917-918, 1999.
  13. T. Suhara, H. Ishizuki, M. Fujimura and H. Nishihara, "Waveguide quasiphase-matched sum-frequency generation device for high-efficiency optical sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1027-1029, Aug. 1999.
  14. S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Ohta and Y. Endo, "Highly sensitive and time-resolving optical sampling system using thin PPLN crystal", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1727-1728, 2000.
  15. S. Kawanishi, T. Yamamoto, M. Nakazawa and M. M. Fejer, "High sensitivity waveform measurement with optical sampling using quasiphasematched mixing in LiNbO 3 waveguide", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 842-844, 2001.
  16. R. L. Jungerman, G. Lee, O. Buccafusca, Y. Kaneko, N. Itagaki, R. Shioda, A. Harada, Y. Nihei and G. Sucha, "1-THz bandwidth C-and L-band optical sampling with a bit rate agile timebase", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1148-1150, Aug. 2002.
  17. P. A. Andrekson, "Pico-second optical sampling using four-wave mixing in a fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 1440-1441, 1991.
  18. H. Furukawa, H. Takakura and K. Kuroda, "A novel optical device with wide-bandwidth wavelength conversion and an optical sampling experiment at 200 Gbit/s", IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 801-807, Jun. 2001.
  19. M. Shirane, Y. Hashimoto, H. Yamada and H. Yokoyama, "A compact optical sampling measurement system using mode-locked laser-diode modules", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1537 -1539, Nov. 2000.
  20. S. Diez, R. Ludwig, C. Schmidt, U. Feiste and H. G. Weber, "160-Gb/s optical sampling by gain-transparent four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1402-1404, Nov. 1999.
  21. K.-L. Deng, R. J. Runser, I. Glesk and P. R. Prucnal, "Single-shot optical sampling oscilloscope for ultrafast optical waveforms", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 397-399, Mar. 1998.
  22. C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, S. Watanabe, F. Futami, R. Ludwig and H. G. Weber, "320 Gb/s all-optical eye diagram sampling using gain-transparent ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (gt-uni)", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 2.1.3, Sep. 2002.
  23. I. Kang and K. F. Dreyer, "Sensitive 320 Gb/s eye diagram measurements via optical sampling with semiconductor optical amplifier-ultrafast nonlinear interferometer", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1081-1082, 2003.
  24. M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. E. Olsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Simple scheme for polarization-independent all-optical sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 2108-2110, Sep. 2004.
  25. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1997.

Other (25)

I. Shake, E. Otani, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, Y. Yamabayashi and T. Morioka, "Bit rate flexible quality monitoring of 10 to 160 Gbit/s optical signals based on optical sampling technique", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 2087-2089, 2000.

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gbit/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 987 -989, Sep. 2001.

C. Schmidt, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, T. Yamamoto, C. Schubert, J. Berger, M. Kroh, H.-J. Ehrke, E. Dietrich, C. Börner, R. Ludwig and H. G. Weber, "Complete optical sampling system with broad gap-free spectral range for 160 Gbit/s and 320 Gbit/s and its application in a transmission system", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), 2002, Paper ThU1,. pp. 528-529.

H. Ohta, N. Banjo, N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa and Y. Yanagisawa, "Measuring eye diagram of 320 Gbit/s optical signal by optical sampling using passively modelocked fiber laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 1541-1542, 2001.

T. Yamamoto, L. K. Oxenløwe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, J. Berger, R. Ludwig and H. G. Weber, "Clock recovery from 160 Gbit/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 509-510, 2001.

M. Shirane, Y. Hashimoto, H. Kurita, H. Yamada and H. Yokoyama, "Optical sampling measurement with all-optical clock recovery using mode-locked diode lasers", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2000), 2000, Paper MG2,. pp. 1-3.

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2003), 2003, WP6,. pp. 409-410.

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "160 Gb/s optical data pattern monitoring using a software-synchronized all-optical sampling system", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication Conf. (ECOC 2003), 2003, Paper Mo3.6.2,. pp. 48-49.

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, J. Hansryd, J. Li, P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "All-optical synchronous Q-measurements for ultra-high speed transmission systems", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), 2002, ThU2,. pp. 530 -531.

H. Ohta, S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi and Y. Endo, "Measurement of 200 Gbit/s optical eye diagram by optical sampling with gain switched optical pulse", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 737-739, 2000.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, A. Yokoo, S. Tomaru, T. Kitoh and M. Saruwatari, "100 Gbit/s optical signal eye-diagram measurement with optical sampling using organic nonlinear optical crystal", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 2256-2258, 1996.

S. Nogiwa, H. Ohta, Y. Kawaguchi and Y. Endo, "Improvement of sensitivity in optical sampling system", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 917-918, 1999.

T. Suhara, H. Ishizuki, M. Fujimura and H. Nishihara, "Waveguide quasiphase-matched sum-frequency generation device for high-efficiency optical sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1027-1029, Aug. 1999.

S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Ohta and Y. Endo, "Highly sensitive and time-resolving optical sampling system using thin PPLN crystal", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1727-1728, 2000.

S. Kawanishi, T. Yamamoto, M. Nakazawa and M. M. Fejer, "High sensitivity waveform measurement with optical sampling using quasiphasematched mixing in LiNbO 3 waveguide", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 842-844, 2001.

R. L. Jungerman, G. Lee, O. Buccafusca, Y. Kaneko, N. Itagaki, R. Shioda, A. Harada, Y. Nihei and G. Sucha, "1-THz bandwidth C-and L-band optical sampling with a bit rate agile timebase", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1148-1150, Aug. 2002.

P. A. Andrekson, "Pico-second optical sampling using four-wave mixing in a fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 1440-1441, 1991.

H. Furukawa, H. Takakura and K. Kuroda, "A novel optical device with wide-bandwidth wavelength conversion and an optical sampling experiment at 200 Gbit/s", IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 801-807, Jun. 2001.

M. Shirane, Y. Hashimoto, H. Yamada and H. Yokoyama, "A compact optical sampling measurement system using mode-locked laser-diode modules", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1537 -1539, Nov. 2000.

S. Diez, R. Ludwig, C. Schmidt, U. Feiste and H. G. Weber, "160-Gb/s optical sampling by gain-transparent four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1402-1404, Nov. 1999.

K.-L. Deng, R. J. Runser, I. Glesk and P. R. Prucnal, "Single-shot optical sampling oscilloscope for ultrafast optical waveforms", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 397-399, Mar. 1998.

C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, S. Watanabe, F. Futami, R. Ludwig and H. G. Weber, "320 Gb/s all-optical eye diagram sampling using gain-transparent ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (gt-uni)", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 2.1.3, Sep. 2002.

I. Kang and K. F. Dreyer, "Sensitive 320 Gb/s eye diagram measurements via optical sampling with semiconductor optical amplifier-ultrafast nonlinear interferometer", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1081-1082, 2003.

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. E. Olsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Simple scheme for polarization-independent all-optical sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 2108-2110, Sep. 2004.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1997.

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