Abstract

A general small-signal model for amplitude-, phase-, and polarization-to-intensity conversion in optical systems affected by chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), and polarization-dependent loss (PDL) is presented, which extends a previous scalar model by Wang and Petermann [1]. The model leads to simple intensity filters,which can be expressed as a linear combination of the components of the Stokes' vector of the signal input state of polarization (ISOP), and facilitates the prediction of the ISOPs, which minimize/maximize the intensity modulation on the output signal. The model is first used to study the output intensity in a first-order PMD-compensated single-channel system with either input amplitude, or phase, or polarization modulation. The small-signal model provides a good prediction of the received intensity up to modulation indexes of about 20%-30%, according to the modulation type. The model is then successfully used in a semianalytical bit-error rate (BER) evaluation method to estimate the system penalty induced by cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a two-channel wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) dispersion-managed system with PMD compensation.

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  1. J. Wang and K. Petermann, "Small-signal analysis for dispersive optical fiber communication systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 96-100, Jan. 1992.
  2. R. Khosravani, Y. Xie, L.-S. Yan, Y. W. Song, A. E. Willner and C. R. Menyuk, "Limitations to first-order PMD compensation in WDM systems due to XPM-induced PSP changes", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2001), vol. 3, 2001, pp. WAA5.1-WAA5.3.
  3. J. H. Lee, K. J. Park, C. H. Kim and Y. C. Chung, "Effects of nonlinear crosstalk in optical PMD compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1082-1084, Aug. 2002.
  4. A. Bononi, A. Vannucci, A. Orlandini, E. Corbel, S. Lanne and S. Bigo, "Degree of polarization degradation due to cross-phase modulation and its impact on polarization mode dispersion compensators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1903-1913, Sep. 2003.
  5. B. C. Collings and L. Boivin, "Nonlinear polarization evolution induced by cross-phase modulation and its impact on transmission systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1582-1584, Nov. 2000.
  6. G. Bellotti, M. Varani, C. Francia and A. Bononi, "Intensity distortion induced by cross-phase modulation and chromatic dispersion in optical-fiber transmissions with dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1745-1747, Dec. 1998.
  7. A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Cross-phase modulation in intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 178-190, Feb. 1999.
  8. R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov and P. Bayvel, "Prediction of transmission penalties due to cross-phase modulation in WDM systems using a simplified technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 804-806, Jul. 2000.
  9. R. Noé, D. Sandel, M. Y. Dierolf, S. Honz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schoplin, C. Glingener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fisher, T. Weyerauch and W. Haase, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20 and 40 Gbit/s with various optical equalizers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1602-1615, Sep. 1999.
  10. A. Bononi and A. Vannucci, "Is there life beyond the principal states of polarization?", Optical Fiber Technol., vol. 8, pp. 257-294, 2002.
  11. A. Eyal, D. Kuperman and M. Tur, "An efficient technique for finding input SOP's, which maximize/minimize the eye-opening in fiber-optic links with high-order PMD and PDL", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2003), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003,Paper ThJ5.
  12. R. Noé, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, F. Wüst and S. Hinz, "Polarization mode dispersion detected by arrival time measurement of polarization-scrambled light", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 229-235, Feb. 2002.
  13. J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers", in Proc. Nat. Academy Science (PNAS), vol. 97, Apr. 2000, pp. 4541-4550.
  14. N. J. Frigo, "A generalized geometrical representation of coupled mode theory", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-22, no. 11, pp. 2131-2140, Nov. 1986.
  15. H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson and J. P. Gordon, "Emulation and inversion of polarization-mode dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 482-495, Feb. 2003.
  16. F. Bruyere, "Impact of first-and second-order PMD in optical digital transmission systems", Optical Fiber Technol., vol. 2, pp. 269-280, 1996.
  17. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1989.
  18. A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas and D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave transmission systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 704-709, May 1988.
  19. A. Vannucci, P. Serena and A. Bononi, "The RP method: A new tool for the iterative solution of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1102-1112, Jul. 2002.
  20. O. V. Sinkin, R. Holzlöhner, J. Zweck and C. R. Menyuk, "Optimization of the split-step Fourier method in modeling optical-fiber communications systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 61-68, Jan. 2003.
  21. G. Bellotti, "A survey of dispersion maps for 10 Gb/s terrestrial transmissions, with network applications," in Optical Networking, A. Bononi, Ed. London: U.K.: Springer-Verlag, 1999, pp. 212-221.
  22. A. Vannucci, A. Bononi and L. Gavini, "A new control for double-stage optical PMD compensators and its geometrical interpretation", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2003), Rimini, Italy, Sep. 2003,Paper We.3.6.3.

Other (22)

J. Wang and K. Petermann, "Small-signal analysis for dispersive optical fiber communication systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 96-100, Jan. 1992.

R. Khosravani, Y. Xie, L.-S. Yan, Y. W. Song, A. E. Willner and C. R. Menyuk, "Limitations to first-order PMD compensation in WDM systems due to XPM-induced PSP changes", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2001), vol. 3, 2001, pp. WAA5.1-WAA5.3.

J. H. Lee, K. J. Park, C. H. Kim and Y. C. Chung, "Effects of nonlinear crosstalk in optical PMD compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1082-1084, Aug. 2002.

A. Bononi, A. Vannucci, A. Orlandini, E. Corbel, S. Lanne and S. Bigo, "Degree of polarization degradation due to cross-phase modulation and its impact on polarization mode dispersion compensators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1903-1913, Sep. 2003.

B. C. Collings and L. Boivin, "Nonlinear polarization evolution induced by cross-phase modulation and its impact on transmission systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1582-1584, Nov. 2000.

G. Bellotti, M. Varani, C. Francia and A. Bononi, "Intensity distortion induced by cross-phase modulation and chromatic dispersion in optical-fiber transmissions with dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1745-1747, Dec. 1998.

A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Cross-phase modulation in intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 178-190, Feb. 1999.

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov and P. Bayvel, "Prediction of transmission penalties due to cross-phase modulation in WDM systems using a simplified technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 804-806, Jul. 2000.

R. Noé, D. Sandel, M. Y. Dierolf, S. Honz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schoplin, C. Glingener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fisher, T. Weyerauch and W. Haase, "Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20 and 40 Gbit/s with various optical equalizers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1602-1615, Sep. 1999.

A. Bononi and A. Vannucci, "Is there life beyond the principal states of polarization?", Optical Fiber Technol., vol. 8, pp. 257-294, 2002.

A. Eyal, D. Kuperman and M. Tur, "An efficient technique for finding input SOP's, which maximize/minimize the eye-opening in fiber-optic links with high-order PMD and PDL", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2003), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003,Paper ThJ5.

R. Noé, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, F. Wüst and S. Hinz, "Polarization mode dispersion detected by arrival time measurement of polarization-scrambled light", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 229-235, Feb. 2002.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers", in Proc. Nat. Academy Science (PNAS), vol. 97, Apr. 2000, pp. 4541-4550.

N. J. Frigo, "A generalized geometrical representation of coupled mode theory", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-22, no. 11, pp. 2131-2140, Nov. 1986.

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson and J. P. Gordon, "Emulation and inversion of polarization-mode dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 482-495, Feb. 2003.

F. Bruyere, "Impact of first-and second-order PMD in optical digital transmission systems", Optical Fiber Technol., vol. 2, pp. 269-280, 1996.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1989.

A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas and D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave transmission systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 704-709, May 1988.

A. Vannucci, P. Serena and A. Bononi, "The RP method: A new tool for the iterative solution of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1102-1112, Jul. 2002.

O. V. Sinkin, R. Holzlöhner, J. Zweck and C. R. Menyuk, "Optimization of the split-step Fourier method in modeling optical-fiber communications systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 61-68, Jan. 2003.

G. Bellotti, "A survey of dispersion maps for 10 Gb/s terrestrial transmissions, with network applications," in Optical Networking, A. Bononi, Ed. London: U.K.: Springer-Verlag, 1999, pp. 212-221.

A. Vannucci, A. Bononi and L. Gavini, "A new control for double-stage optical PMD compensators and its geometrical interpretation", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2003), Rimini, Italy, Sep. 2003,Paper We.3.6.3.

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