Abstract

A method that can spatially characterize gratings with grating strength |k|L up to 10 is presented. The grating is thermally chirped, which increases the transmissivity through the grating. The complex reflectivity spectrum is measured using optical-frequency-domain reflectometry, and the spatial profile is reconstructed using the time-domain layer-peeling algorithm. The spatial profiles of a uniform grating with grating strength |k|L = 8.25 (-66-dB minimum transmissivity) and a distributed-feedback fiber laser grating with grating strength |k|L = 7.5 are accurately reconstructed from the measured complex reflection spectrum.

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  1. A. Asseh, H. Storøy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren and R. A. H. Stubbe, "A writing technique for long fiber Bragg gratings with complex reflectivity profiles", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1419-1423, Aug. 1997.
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  3. A. V. Buryak and D. Y. Stepanov, "Correction of systematic errors in the fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 1099 -1101, 2002.
  4. E. Brinkmeyer, G. Stolze and D. Johlen, "Optical space domain reflectometry of determination of strength and chirp distribution along optical fiber gratings", in Proc. Bragg Grating, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Williamsburg, VA, Oct. 26-28 1997, p. BSuC2.
  5. E. Brinkmeyer, D. Johlen, F. Knappe and H. Renner, "Methods for experimental characterization of uv-written gratings and waveguides", OSA Tech. Dig. Series, vol. 33, pp. 155-175, 1999.
  6. E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, M. N. Zervas and R. I. Lamming, "Characterization of fiber distributed-feedback lasers with perturbation method", Appl. Opt., vol. 38, pp. 4558-4565, 1999.
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  8. P.-Y. Fonjallaz and P. Börjel, "Interferometric side diffraction technique for characterization of fiber gratings", in OSA Tech. Dig. Series, vol. 33, 1999, pp. 179-182.
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  11. D. Sandel, R. Noé, G. Heise and B. Borchert, "Optical network analysis and longitunal structure characterization of fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2435-2442, Dec. 1998.
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  13. P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 565-567, May 1993.
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  16. P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger and R. P. Salathé, "Local coupling-coefficient characterization in fiber Bragg gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 598-600, 2003.
  17. R. Feced, M. N. Zervas and M. A. Muriel, "An efficient inverse scattering algorithm for the design of nonuniform fiber Bragg gratings", IEEE J. Quantum Electron. , vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1105-1115, Aug. 1999.
  18. J. Skaar, L. Wang and T. Erdogan, "On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 165-173, Feb. 2001.
  19. J. Skaar and O. H. Waagaard, "Design and characterization of finite length fiber gratings", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1238-1245, Oct. 2003.
  20. J. Skaar and R. Feced, "Reconstruction of gratings from noisy reflection data", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 19, pp. 2229-2237, 2002.
  21. S. Keren, A. Rosenthal and M. Horowitz, "Measuring the structure of highly reflecting fiber Bragg gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 575-577, Apr. 2003.
  22. S. Løvseth and E. Rønnekleiv, "Fundamental and higher order mode thresholds of DFB fiber lasers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 494-501, Mar. 2002.
  23. J. Lauzon, S. Thibault, J. Martin and F. Ouellette, "Implementation and characterization of fiber Bragg gratings linearly chirped by a temperature gradient", Opt. Lett. , vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 2027-2029, 1994.
  24. O. H. Waagaard, E. Rønnekleiv and J. T. Kringlebotn, "Spatial characterization of FBG's using layer-peeling", in Proc. 28th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2002) , Sep. 2002, p. P1.32.
  25. S. Yao, "Have you hugged your fiber today?", Photonics Spectra, pp. 102-108, Feb. 2001.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Other (24)

P. A. Krug, R. Stolte and R. Ulrich, "Measurement of index modulation along an optical fiber Bragg gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 17, pp. 1767 -1769, 1995.

P.-Y. Fonjallaz and P. Börjel, "Interferometric side diffraction technique for characterization of fiber gratings", in OSA Tech. Dig. Series, vol. 33, 1999, pp. 179-182.

J. P. von der Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi and N. Gisin, "On the characterization of optical network componenents with optical frequency domain reflectometry", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1131-1141, Jul. 1997.

M. Foggatt, T. Erdogan, J. Moore and S. Shenk, "Optical frequency domain characterization of dispersion in optical fiber Bragg gratings", in OSA Tech. Dig. Series, vol. 33, 1999, pp. 176-178.

D. Sandel, R. Noé, G. Heise and B. Borchert, "Optical network analysis and longitunal structure characterization of fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2435-2442, Dec. 1998.

O. H. Waagaard, E. Rønnekleiv and J. T. Kringlebotn, "Spatial characterization of strong fiber Bragg gatings", in Proc. SPIE, Fiber-Based Component Fabrication, Testing and Connectorization, vol. 4943, 2003, pp. 16- 24.

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 565-567, May 1993.

D.-W. Huang and C.-C. Yang, "Reconstruction of fiber grating refractive-index profiles from complex Bragg reflection spectra", Appl. Opt., vol. 38, no. 21, pp. 4494-4498, 1999.

S. Keren and M. Horowitz, "Interrogation of fiber gratings by use of low-coherence spectral interferometry of noiselike pulses", Opt. Lett. , vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 328-330, 2001.

P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger and R. P. Salathé, "Local coupling-coefficient characterization in fiber Bragg gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 598-600, 2003.

R. Feced, M. N. Zervas and M. A. Muriel, "An efficient inverse scattering algorithm for the design of nonuniform fiber Bragg gratings", IEEE J. Quantum Electron. , vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1105-1115, Aug. 1999.

J. Skaar, L. Wang and T. Erdogan, "On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 165-173, Feb. 2001.

J. Skaar and O. H. Waagaard, "Design and characterization of finite length fiber gratings", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1238-1245, Oct. 2003.

J. Skaar and R. Feced, "Reconstruction of gratings from noisy reflection data", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 19, pp. 2229-2237, 2002.

S. Keren, A. Rosenthal and M. Horowitz, "Measuring the structure of highly reflecting fiber Bragg gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 575-577, Apr. 2003.

S. Løvseth and E. Rønnekleiv, "Fundamental and higher order mode thresholds of DFB fiber lasers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 494-501, Mar. 2002.

J. Lauzon, S. Thibault, J. Martin and F. Ouellette, "Implementation and characterization of fiber Bragg gratings linearly chirped by a temperature gradient", Opt. Lett. , vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 2027-2029, 1994.

O. H. Waagaard, E. Rønnekleiv and J. T. Kringlebotn, "Spatial characterization of FBG's using layer-peeling", in Proc. 28th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2002) , Sep. 2002, p. P1.32.

S. Yao, "Have you hugged your fiber today?", Photonics Spectra, pp. 102-108, Feb. 2001.

A. Asseh, H. Storøy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren and R. A. H. Stubbe, "A writing technique for long fiber Bragg gratings with complex reflectivity profiles", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1419-1423, Aug. 1997.

I. Peterman, B. Sahlgren, S. Helmfrid, A. T. Friberg and P.-Y. Fonjallaz, "Fabrication of advanced fiber Bragg gratings by use of sequential writing with a continuous-wave ultraviolet laser source", Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1051 -1056, 2002.

A. V. Buryak and D. Y. Stepanov, "Correction of systematic errors in the fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 1099 -1101, 2002.

E. Brinkmeyer, G. Stolze and D. Johlen, "Optical space domain reflectometry of determination of strength and chirp distribution along optical fiber gratings", in Proc. Bragg Grating, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Williamsburg, VA, Oct. 26-28 1997, p. BSuC2.

E. Brinkmeyer, D. Johlen, F. Knappe and H. Renner, "Methods for experimental characterization of uv-written gratings and waveguides", OSA Tech. Dig. Series, vol. 33, pp. 155-175, 1999.

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