Abstract

Symmetric X-couplers are analyzed using the supermode approach. Constraints for lossless propagation are presented. A simple analytic approximation for the total accumulated phase difference of the supermodes is found that enables the calculation of the coupling ratio of arbitrary symmetric X-couplers. Good agreement is found between results obtained with the proposed method and data calculated using a beam-propagation method. The impact of several design parameters on the coupling ratio is discussed. Due to the simplicity of the structure, X-couplers are well suited for being realized by direct light-writing techniques.

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  1. T. Pahlmann, A. Neyer and E. Voges, "Interferometric activated X switch: IAX", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1601-1605, Oct. 1989.
  2. H. Feng, X. Li, Z. Yang and M. Wang, "2 x 2 asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer switch", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 60, no. 23, pp. 2843-2845, 1992.
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  14. R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell and B. J. Ainslie, "Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 191 -194, Feb. 1993.
  15. H. Renner, "Up and down UV-trimming of planar directional waveguide couplers: modeling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 825-827, Jul. 2000.
  16. D. Marcuse, "Directional coupler made of nonidentical asymmetric slabs. Part I: synchronous couplers", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 113-118, Jan. 1987.
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  19. A. Neyer, W. Mevenkamp, L. Thylen and B. Lagerström, "A beam propagation method analysis of active and passive waveguide crossings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 635-642, Mar. 1985.
  20. M. D. Feit and J. J. A. Fleck, "An analysis of intersecting diffused channel waveguides", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1799-1805, Nov. 1985.
  21. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optica, Waveguide Theory, London: U.K.: Chapman & Hall, 1991.

Other (21)

T. Pahlmann, A. Neyer and E. Voges, "Interferometric activated X switch: IAX", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1601-1605, Oct. 1989.

H. Feng, X. Li, Z. Yang and M. Wang, "2 x 2 asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer switch", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 60, no. 23, pp. 2843-2845, 1992.

F. Rottmann, A. Neyer and W. Mevenkamp, "Integrated-optic wavelength multiplexers on lithium niobate based two-made interference", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 946-952, Jun. 1988.

G. E. Betts and W. S. C. Chang, "Crossing-channel waveguide electrooptic modulators", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1027 -1038, Jul. 1986.

Y. Kokubun, S. Suzuki and K. Iga, "Phase space evaluation of distributed-index branching waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1534-1541, Oct. 1986.

H. Nakajima, T. Horimatsu, M. Seino and I. Sawaki, "Crosstalk characteristics of Ti- LiNbO3 intersecting waveguides and their application as TE/TM mode splitters", IEEE J. Quanrum Electron., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 771-776, Apr. 1982.

F. Ladouceur and J. D. Love, Silica-Based Buried Channel Woveguides and Devices, London: U.K.: Chapman & Hall, 1996.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Paulsen, A. Bjarklev and O. Paulsen, "Direct UV-writing of buried singlemode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 1401-1402, 1994.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 71, no. 23, pp. 3329-3331, 1997.

G. D. Maxwell and B. J. Ainslie, "Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV-induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 95-96, 1995.

K. Faerch and M. Svalgaard, "Symmetrical waveguide devices fabricated by direct UV-writing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 173-175, Feb. 2002.

F. Knappe, J. Voigt, H. Renner and E. Brinkmeyer, "Direct UV writing of multimode-interference couplers", in Proc. Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, Poling Glass Waveguides, 2003,Paper TuA4,. pp. 184-186.

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 1516-1518, 1991.

R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell and B. J. Ainslie, "Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 191 -194, Feb. 1993.

H. Renner, "Up and down UV-trimming of planar directional waveguide couplers: modeling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 825-827, Jul. 2000.

D. Marcuse, "Directional coupler made of nonidentical asymmetric slabs. Part I: synchronous couplers", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 113-118, Jan. 1987.

R. A. Forber and E. Marom, "Symmetric directional coupler switches", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 911-919, Jun. 1986.

S. Gevorgyan and A. B. Hovsepyan, "Power distribution in symmetric integrated optic X junction", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 788-789, 1990.

A. Neyer, W. Mevenkamp, L. Thylen and B. Lagerström, "A beam propagation method analysis of active and passive waveguide crossings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 635-642, Mar. 1985.

M. D. Feit and J. J. A. Fleck, "An analysis of intersecting diffused channel waveguides", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1799-1805, Nov. 1985.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optica, Waveguide Theory, London: U.K.: Chapman & Hall, 1991.

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