Abstract

The goal of this paper is to analyze the effects of key receiver impairments on the performance of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK), like the responsivity imbalance between the two arms of the receiver balanced photodetector and the detuning of the asymmetric Mach-Zehnder filter. We extend to DPSK a semianalytical technique, based on the Karhunen-Loève series expansion, which can be used to obtain reliable performance results in the simulation of IM/DD optical systems. We show that the DPSK receiver imperfections may substantially decrease the sensitivity gain of DPSK over standard IM/DD systems. In particular, the performance turns out to be remarkably insensitive to the responsivity imbalance between the two arms of the receiver balanced photodetector but highly sensitive to the detuning of the asymmetric Mach-Zehnder filter. We also analyze the validity of the application of the Q parameter evaluation, which is extensively used in theory and simulation of intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM/DD) optical systems, to the study of the bit error rate performance of direct-detection DPSK optical systems, showing that its inaccuracy can be very large.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. C. Rasmussen, et al. "DWDM 40 G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10, 000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100 km ultrawave fiber spans", in Proc. OFC 2003, vol. 3,post-deadline paper PD18,. pp. 1-3.
  2. O. Ait Sab and V. Lemaire, "Block turbo code performances for long-haul DWDM optical transmission systems", in Proc. OFC 2000, vol. 3, Mar. 2000, pp. 280- 282.
  3. S. Namiki and Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3-16, Jan./Feb. 2001.
  4. P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1576-1582, Nov. 1991.
  5. S. R. Chinn, D. M. Boroson and J. C. Livas, "Sensitivity of optically preamplified DPSK receivers with Fabry-Perot filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 370-376, Sep. 1996.
  6. N. B. Blachman, "The effect of phase error on DPSK error probability", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 364-365, Mar. 1981.
  7. D. Marcuse, "Calculation of bit error probability for a lightwave system with optical amplifiers and post-detection Gaussian noise", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 505-513, Apr. 1991.
  8. P. Poggiolini and F. Palmieri, "On the performance of optical direct-detection DPSK in the presence of receiver impairments", in Proc. LEOS 2002 Annu. Meet., vol. 2, Glasgow, U.K.,Nov. 2002, pp. 703-704.
  9. G. Bosco, et al. "A novel analytical approach to the evaluation of the impact of fiber parametric gain on the bit error rate", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2154-2163, Dec. 2001.
  10. L. Ribeiro, et al. "Performance evaluation of EDFA preamplified receivers taking into account intersymbol interference", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 225-231, Feb. 1995.
  11. E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and post-detection filtering", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1493-1503, Nov. 2000.
  12. N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidsion, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 304-306, Mar. 1993.
  13. G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "The effect of receiver imperfections on the performance of direct-detection optical systems using DPSK modulation", in Proc. OFC 2003, Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003, pp. 457-458.
  14. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communication , New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989.
  15. A. M. Mathai and S. B. Prevost, Quadratic Forms in Random Variables, New York: Marcel Dekker, 1992, ch. 3.
  16. C. W. Elstrom, "Evaluating radar detection probabilities by steepest descent integration", Trans. Aerospace Electron. Syst., vol. AES-20, no. 9, pp. 624-633, Sept. 1984.
  17. P. Poggiolini and S. Benedetto, "Theory of polarization spreading techniques-Part I", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 2105-2118, May 1994.
  18. H. Kim and P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1887-1891, Sep. 2003.
  19. G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "On the Q-factor inaccuracy in the performance analysis of optical direct-detection DPSK systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 665-667, Feb. 2004.

Other (19)

C. Rasmussen, et al. "DWDM 40 G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10, 000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100 km ultrawave fiber spans", in Proc. OFC 2003, vol. 3,post-deadline paper PD18,. pp. 1-3.

O. Ait Sab and V. Lemaire, "Block turbo code performances for long-haul DWDM optical transmission systems", in Proc. OFC 2000, vol. 3, Mar. 2000, pp. 280- 282.

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3-16, Jan./Feb. 2001.

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1576-1582, Nov. 1991.

S. R. Chinn, D. M. Boroson and J. C. Livas, "Sensitivity of optically preamplified DPSK receivers with Fabry-Perot filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 370-376, Sep. 1996.

N. B. Blachman, "The effect of phase error on DPSK error probability", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 364-365, Mar. 1981.

D. Marcuse, "Calculation of bit error probability for a lightwave system with optical amplifiers and post-detection Gaussian noise", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 505-513, Apr. 1991.

P. Poggiolini and F. Palmieri, "On the performance of optical direct-detection DPSK in the presence of receiver impairments", in Proc. LEOS 2002 Annu. Meet., vol. 2, Glasgow, U.K.,Nov. 2002, pp. 703-704.

G. Bosco, et al. "A novel analytical approach to the evaluation of the impact of fiber parametric gain on the bit error rate", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2154-2163, Dec. 2001.

L. Ribeiro, et al. "Performance evaluation of EDFA preamplified receivers taking into account intersymbol interference", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 225-231, Feb. 1995.

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and post-detection filtering", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1493-1503, Nov. 2000.

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidsion, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 304-306, Mar. 1993.

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "The effect of receiver imperfections on the performance of direct-detection optical systems using DPSK modulation", in Proc. OFC 2003, Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003, pp. 457-458.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communication , New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989.

A. M. Mathai and S. B. Prevost, Quadratic Forms in Random Variables, New York: Marcel Dekker, 1992, ch. 3.

C. W. Elstrom, "Evaluating radar detection probabilities by steepest descent integration", Trans. Aerospace Electron. Syst., vol. AES-20, no. 9, pp. 624-633, Sept. 1984.

P. Poggiolini and S. Benedetto, "Theory of polarization spreading techniques-Part I", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 2105-2118, May 1994.

H. Kim and P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1887-1891, Sep. 2003.

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "On the Q-factor inaccuracy in the performance analysis of optical direct-detection DPSK systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 665-667, Feb. 2004.

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