Abstract

Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) is attractive to increase transmission lengths and capacity, especially when it is combined with polarization division multiplex. Baseband processing at the symbol rate allows to keep the required electronic bandwidth low. So far, external cavity lasers seemed to be indispensable for such transmission systems due to linewidth requirements. We propose a feedforward carrier recovery scheme based on regenerative intradyne frequency dividers, i.e., the well-known regenerative frequency divider is extended to process baseband in-phase and quadrature (I and Q) signals. An IF linewidth tolerance of up to 0.001 times the QPSK symbol rate is predicted,2 decades more than for an optical phase locked loop with a realistic loop delay. This means that commercially available DFB lasers shall suffice for synchronous optical QPSK/BPSK transmission.

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  1. K. Kikuchi, T. Okoshi, M. Nagamatsu and N. Henmi, "Bit-error rate of PSK heterodyne optical communication system and its degradation due to spectral spread of transmitter and local oscillator", Electron. Lett., vol. 19, pp. 417-418, 1983.
  2. L. G. Kazovsky, "Performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements for optical PSK heterodyne communications systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-4, no. 4, pp. 415-425, Apr. 1986.
  3. G. Fischer, "A 700 Mbit/s PSK optical homodyne system with balanced phase locked loop", J. Opt. Commun., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 27-28, 1988.
  4. J. M. Kahn, et al. "4-Gb/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phase-locked semiconductor lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 285-287, 1990.
  5. S. Yamazaki and K. Emura, "Feasibility study on QPSK optical-heterodyne detection system", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1646-1653, Nov. 1990.
  6. T. Chikama, et al. "Modulation and demodulation techniques in optical heterodyne PSK transmission systems", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 8, pp. 309-322, 1992.
  7. S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita and K. Noguchi, "An 8 Gb/s QPSK optical homodyne detection experiment using external-cavity laser diodes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 765-767, Jul. 1992.
  8. F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: concept and digital receiver realization", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1290-1296, 1992.
  9. R. Noé, E. Meissner, B. Borchert and H. Rodler, "Direct modulation 565 Mb/s PSK experiment with solitary SL-QW-DFB lasers and novel suppression of the phase transition periods in the carrier recovery", in Proc. Europ. Conf. Opt. Commun. ECOC 1992, vol. 3, Berlin, Germany, pp. 867-870.
  10. S. Norimatsu and K. Iwashita, "Damping factor influence on linewidth requirements for optical PSK coherent detection systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, pp. 1226-1233, 1993.
  11. D. Hoffman, et al. "Integrated optics eight-port 90 ° hybrid on LiNbO3", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, pp. 794-798, 1989.
  12. B. Gilbert, "A precise four-quadrant multiplier with subnanosecond response", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 3, pp. 365 -373, 1968.
  13. R. H. Derksen, V. Lück and H.-M. Rein, "Stability ranges of regenerative frequency dividers employing double-balanced mixers in large-signal operation", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1759-1762, Oct. 1991.
  14. H. Knapp, T. F. Meister, M. Wurzer, D. Zoschg, K. Aufinger and L. Treitinger, "A 79 GHz dynamic frequency divider in SiGe bipolar technology", in ISSCC Dig. Tech. Pap., 2000, pp. 208-209.
  15. R. Langenhorst, E. Patzak and W. Pieper, "Balanced 3 x 3 port phase diversity receiver with reduced impact of thermal noise", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 595-596, 1990.
  16. R. Noé, W. B. Sessa, R. Welter and L. G. Kazovsky, "New FSK phase-diversity receiver in a 150 Mbit/s coherent optical transmission system", Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 567-568, 1988.
  17. B. Lankl, J. A. Nossek and G. Sebald, "Cross-polarization interference cancellation in the presence of delay effects", in IEEE Proc. ICC 1988,, pp. 41.4.1-41.4.7.
  18. M. Tseytlin, O. Ritterbush and A. Salamon, "Digital, endless polarization control for polarization multiplexed fiber-optic communications", in Proc. OFC 2003,, p. 103.
  19. V. K. Prabhu, "PSK performance with imperfect carrier recovery", IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. AES-12, no. 2, pp. 275-286, Mar. 1976.
  20. X. Wei, X. Liu and C. Xu, "Numerical simulation of the SPM penalty in a 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1636-1638, 2003.

Other (20)

K. Kikuchi, T. Okoshi, M. Nagamatsu and N. Henmi, "Bit-error rate of PSK heterodyne optical communication system and its degradation due to spectral spread of transmitter and local oscillator", Electron. Lett., vol. 19, pp. 417-418, 1983.

L. G. Kazovsky, "Performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements for optical PSK heterodyne communications systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-4, no. 4, pp. 415-425, Apr. 1986.

G. Fischer, "A 700 Mbit/s PSK optical homodyne system with balanced phase locked loop", J. Opt. Commun., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 27-28, 1988.

J. M. Kahn, et al. "4-Gb/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phase-locked semiconductor lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 285-287, 1990.

S. Yamazaki and K. Emura, "Feasibility study on QPSK optical-heterodyne detection system", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1646-1653, Nov. 1990.

T. Chikama, et al. "Modulation and demodulation techniques in optical heterodyne PSK transmission systems", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 8, pp. 309-322, 1992.

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita and K. Noguchi, "An 8 Gb/s QPSK optical homodyne detection experiment using external-cavity laser diodes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 765-767, Jul. 1992.

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: concept and digital receiver realization", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1290-1296, 1992.

R. Noé, E. Meissner, B. Borchert and H. Rodler, "Direct modulation 565 Mb/s PSK experiment with solitary SL-QW-DFB lasers and novel suppression of the phase transition periods in the carrier recovery", in Proc. Europ. Conf. Opt. Commun. ECOC 1992, vol. 3, Berlin, Germany, pp. 867-870.

S. Norimatsu and K. Iwashita, "Damping factor influence on linewidth requirements for optical PSK coherent detection systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, pp. 1226-1233, 1993.

D. Hoffman, et al. "Integrated optics eight-port 90 ° hybrid on LiNbO3", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, pp. 794-798, 1989.

B. Gilbert, "A precise four-quadrant multiplier with subnanosecond response", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 3, pp. 365 -373, 1968.

R. H. Derksen, V. Lück and H.-M. Rein, "Stability ranges of regenerative frequency dividers employing double-balanced mixers in large-signal operation", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1759-1762, Oct. 1991.

H. Knapp, T. F. Meister, M. Wurzer, D. Zoschg, K. Aufinger and L. Treitinger, "A 79 GHz dynamic frequency divider in SiGe bipolar technology", in ISSCC Dig. Tech. Pap., 2000, pp. 208-209.

R. Langenhorst, E. Patzak and W. Pieper, "Balanced 3 x 3 port phase diversity receiver with reduced impact of thermal noise", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 595-596, 1990.

R. Noé, W. B. Sessa, R. Welter and L. G. Kazovsky, "New FSK phase-diversity receiver in a 150 Mbit/s coherent optical transmission system", Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 567-568, 1988.

B. Lankl, J. A. Nossek and G. Sebald, "Cross-polarization interference cancellation in the presence of delay effects", in IEEE Proc. ICC 1988,, pp. 41.4.1-41.4.7.

M. Tseytlin, O. Ritterbush and A. Salamon, "Digital, endless polarization control for polarization multiplexed fiber-optic communications", in Proc. OFC 2003,, p. 103.

V. K. Prabhu, "PSK performance with imperfect carrier recovery", IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. AES-12, no. 2, pp. 275-286, Mar. 1976.

X. Wei, X. Liu and C. Xu, "Numerical simulation of the SPM penalty in a 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1636-1638, 2003.

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