Abstract

This paper discusses the investigation of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) receivers operating on intensity-modulated direct-detection optical channels. The study focuses on long-haul or metro links spanning several hundred kilometers of single-mode fiber with optical amplifiers. The structure of MLSE-based optical receivers operating in the presence of dispersion and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), as well as shot and thermal noise, are discussed, and a theory of the error rate of these receivers is developed. Computer simulations show a close agreement between the predictions of the theory and simulation results. Some important implementation issues are also addressed. Optical channels suffer from impairments that set them apart from other channels, and therefore they need a special investigation. Among these impairments are the facts that the optical channel is nonlinear, and noise is often non-Gaussian and signal dependent. For example, in optically amplified single-mode fiber links, the dominant source of noise is ASE noise, which after photodetection is distributed according to a noncentral chi-square probability density function. In addition, optical fibers suffer from chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD). Although the use of MLSE in optical channels has been discussed in previous literature, no detailed analysis of optical receivers using this technique has been reported so far. This motivates the study reported in this paper.

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Other (33)

J. H. Winters and R. D. Gitlin, "Electrical signal processing techniques in long-haul fiber-optic systems", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1439-1453, Sep. 1990.

H. F. Haunstein, W. Sauer-Greff, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht and R. Urbansky, "Principles for electronic equalization for polarization-mode dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1169-1182, Apr. 2004.

J. H. Winters, R. D. Gitlin and S. Kasturia, "Reducing the effects of transmission impairments in digital fiber optic systems", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 68-76, Jun. 1993.

B. L. Kasper, "Equalization of multimode optical fiber systems", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 61, no. 7, p. 1367, Sep. 1982.

A. J. Weiss, "On the performance of electrical equalization in optical fiber transmission systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1225-1227, Sep. 2003.

F. Buchali and H. Bulow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1116-1126, Apr. 2004.

O. E. Agazzi and V. Gopinathan, "The impact of nonlinearity on electronic dispersion compensation of optical channels", presented at Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Exhibit (OFC),. [CD-ROM].

O. E. Agazzi, D. E. Crivelli and H. S. Carrer, "Maximum likelihood sequence estimation in the presence of chromatic and polarization mode dispersion in intensity modulation/direct detection optical channels", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), Jun. 2004, pp. 2787-2793.

R. J. Nuyts, Y. K. Park and P. Gallion, "Dispersion equalization of a 10 Gb/s repeatered transmission system using dispersion compensation fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 31-42, Jan. 1997.

M. Secondini, E. Forestieri and G. Prati, "Adaptive minimum MSE controlled PLC optical equalizer for chromatic dispersion compensation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2322-2331, Oct. 2003.

E. Forestieri, G. Colavolpe and G. Prati, "Novel MSE adaptive control of optical PMD compensators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1997-2003, Dec. 2002.

S. D. Personik, "Baseband linearity and equalization in fiber optic digital communications systems", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1175-1194, Sep. 1973.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. I. Irshid, "Coherence and intersymbol interference in digital fiber optic communication systems", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-18, pp. 944-951, Jun. 1982.

D. Marcuse, "Calculation of bit-error probability for a lightwave system with optical amplifiers and post-detection Gaussian noise", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 9, pp. 505-513, Apr. 1991.

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1576-1582, Nov. 1991.

G. D. Forney, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of digital sequences in the presence of intersymbol interference", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 363-378, May 1972.

R. A. Kennedy, B. D. O. Anderson and R. R. Bitmead, "Blind adaptation of decision feedback equalizers: Gross convergence properties", Int. J. Adapt. Control Signal Process. , vol. 7, pp. 497-523, 1993.

E. A. Lee and D. G. Messerschmitt, Digital Communication, 2d ed. Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 1994, p. 713.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995, p. 594.

"MATLAB, Software Package Version 6.1", The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA, 2002.

D. Marcuse, "Derivation of analytical expressions for the bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1816-1823, Dec. 1990.

O. E. Agazzi and N. Seshadri, "On the use of tentative decisions to cancel intersymbol interference and nonlinear distortion (with application to magnetic recording channels)", IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 394-408, Mar. 1997.

"Characteristics of Single-Mode Optical Fiber and Cable", ITU-T Recommendation G.652, 2003.

K. Parhi, VLSI Digital Signal Processing Systems, New York: Wiley, 1999.

O. E. Agazzi, V. Gopinathan, K. Parhi, K. Kota and A. Phanse, (2000) "DSP Based Equalization for Optical Channels-Feasibility of a VLSI Implementation", IEEE 802.3ae Task Force, New Orleans, LA. [Online]. Available: http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/ae/public/sep00/agazzi_1_0900.pdf

H. Dawid, G. Fettweis and H. Meyr, "A CMOS IC for Gb/s Viterbi decoding: System design and VLSI implementation", IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale (VLSI) Syst. , vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 17-31, Mar. 1996.

P. J. Black and T. H. Y. Meng, "A 1 Gb/s, four-state, sliding block Viterbi decoder", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 797-805, Jun. 1997.

W. C. Black and D. A. Hodges, "Time-interleaved converter arrays", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1022-1029, Dec. 1980.

A. Petraglia and S. K. Mitra, "Analysis of mismatch effects among A/D converters in a time-interleaved waveform digitizer", IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 831-835, Oct. 1991.

D. Fu, K. C. Dyer, S. H. Lewis and P. J. Hurst, "A digital background calibration technique for time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1904-1911, Dec. 1998.

S. M. Jamal, D. Fu, M. P. Singh, P. J. Hurst and S. H. Lewis, "Calibration of sample-time error in a two-channel time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter", IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers , vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 130-139, Jan. 2004.

O. E. Agazzi and V. Gopinathan, "Methods and systems for DSP-based receivers", U.S. Patent US2002/0 080 898 A1 (pending), Jun. 27, 2002.

O. E. Agazzi and V. Gopinathan, "Methods and systems for digitally processing optical data signals", U.S. Patent US2002/0 012 152 A1 (pending), Jan. 31, 2002.

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