Abstract

This paper compares selected optical packet switching architectures that use the wavelength conversion technique to solve the packet contention problem. The architectures are equipped with shared and limited-range wavelength converters (LRWCs). This paper focuses on two architectures: the shared per node (SPN) and the shared per output fiber (SPOF) architectures, in which the wavelength converters are SPN and output fiber, respectively. Packet loss probability is expressed as a function of the number of wavelength converters used, by means of analytical models validated by simulations. The analytical results show how the use of a reduced number of LRWCs with small range allows the switch to obtain the same performances of an architecture equipped with all of the wavelength converters and using a full wavelength conversion.

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  2. C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)-A new paradigm for an optical Internet", J. High Speed Networks, vol. 8, pp. 69-84, 1999.
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  16. G. Shen, et al. "Performance study on a WDM packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters", IEEE Commun. Lett. , vol. 5, pp. 432-434, Oct. 2001.
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  18. Z. Zhang and Y. Yang, "Distributed scheduling algorithms for wavelength convertible WDM optical interconnects", in Proc. IEEE IPDPS, Apr. 2003, pp. 420-429.
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  26. N. Sahri, et al. "A highly integrated 32-SOA gates opto-electronic module suitable for IP-multi-terabit optical packet routers", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. 2001, vol. 4, pp. PD32-1 -PD32-3.
  27. J. E. Hopcroft and R. M. Karp, "An n5/2 algorithm for maximum matching in bipartite graphs", Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. J. Comput., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 225-231, 1973.
  28. L. Xu, H. G. Perros and G. Rouskas, "Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 136-142, Jan. 2001.
  29. A. E. Eckberg and T. C. Hou, "Effects of output buffer sharing on buffer requirements in an ATDM packet switch", Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '88, pp. 459-466,
  30. M. Karol, M. G. Hluchyj and S. P. Morgan, "Input versus output queuing on a space-division packet switch", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-35, pp. 1347-1357, Dec. 1987.
  31. J. A. Shormans and J. M. Pitts, "Overflow probability in shared cell switched buffers", IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 167-169, May 2000.
  32. M. Murata, "Requirements on ATM switch architectures for quality-of-service", IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E-81B, no. 2, pp. 138-151, Feb. 1998.

Other

M. Murata and K. Kitayama, "Ultrafast photonic label switch for asynchronous packets of varaiable length", in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2002, New York, June 23-27, pp. 101-112.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)-A new paradigm for an optical Internet", J. High Speed Networks, vol. 8, pp. 69-84, 1999.

M. Renaud, C. Janz, P. Gambini and C. Guillemot, "Transparent optical packet switching: The European ACTS KEOPS project approach", in Proc. LEOS, vol. 2, 1999, pp. 401-402.

C. Guillemot, et al. "Transparent optical packet switching: The European ACTS KEOPS project approach", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 12, Dec. 1998.

M. Listanti, R. Sabella and V. Eramo, "Architectural and technological issues for future optical internet networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 82-92, Sep. 2000.

B. Li, Y. Qin, X. Cao and K. Sivalingam, "Photonic packet switching: Architectures and performance", Opt. Netw. Mag., pp. 27-39, Jan.-Feb. 2001.

L. Xu, H. G. Perros and G. Rouskas, "Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 136-142, Jan. 2001.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee and S. Dixit, "Advances in photonic packet switching: An overview", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 84-94, Feb. 2000.

M. Mahony, D. Simeoniddu, D. Hunter and A. Tzanamaki, "The application of optical packet switching in future communications networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 128-135, Mar. 2001.

S. Yao, S. J. B. Yoo, B. Mukherjee and S. Dixit, "All-optical packet switching for metropolitan area networks: Opportunities and challenges", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 142-148, Mar. 2001.

S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen and K. E. Stubkyaer, "Optical packet switched network layer without optical buffers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 896-898, Jun. 1998.

S. L. Danielsen, C. Jorgensen, B. Mikkelsen and K. E. Stubbkyaer, "Analysis of a WDM packet switch with improved performance under bursty traffic conditions due to tuneable wavelength converters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 729-735, May 1998.

J. Zhou, et al. "Four-wave-mixing wavelength conversion efficiency in semiconductor traveling-wave amplifiers measured to 65 nm of wavelength shift", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 984-987, Aug. 1994.

C. Joergensen, et al. "4 Gb/s optical wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 657-670, Jun. 1993.

B. Mikkelsen, et al. "Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s signals with SOA's in a Michelson interferometer", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 260-261,

G. Shen, et al. "Performance study on a WDM packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters", IEEE Commun. Lett. , vol. 5, pp. 432-434, Oct. 2001.

V. Eramo, M. Listanti and M. D. Donato, "Performance evaluation of a bufferless optical packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 644-646, Feb. 2004.

Z. Zhang and Y. Yang, "Distributed scheduling algorithms for wavelength convertible WDM optical interconnects", in Proc. IEEE IPDPS, Apr. 2003, pp. 420-429.

Z. Zhang and Y. Yang, "Performance modeling of bufferless WDM packet switching networks with wavelength conversion", in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2003, pp. 2438- 2502.

V. Eramo and M. Listanti, "Packet loss in a bufferless WDM switch employing shared tuneable wavelength converters", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1818-1833, Dec. 2000.

V. Eramo, M. Listanti and P. Pacifici, "A comparison study on the wavelength converters number needed in synchronous and asynchronous all-optical switching architectures", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 340-355, Feb. 2003.

V. Eramo and M. Listanti, "Comparison of unicast/multicast optical packet switching architectures using wavelength conversion", Opt. Netw. Mag., vol. 3, pp. 63-75, Mar.-Apr. 2002.

B. Bostica, M. Burzio, P. Gambini and L. Zucchelli, "Synchronization issues in optical packet switched networks," in Photonic Networks, G. Prati, Ed. New York: Sringer-Verlag, 1997.

F. Dorgueille, et al. "Fast optical amplifier gate array for WDM routing and switching applications", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications, San Jose, CA, Feb. 22-27 1998,TUH3,. pp. 43-44.

T. Kato, et al. "10 Gb/s photonic cell switching with hybrid 4 x 4 optical matrix module on silica based planar waveguide platform", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication, San Jose, CA, Feb. 22-27 1998,post-deadline PD3.

N. Sahri, et al. "A highly integrated 32-SOA gates opto-electronic module suitable for IP-multi-terabit optical packet routers", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. 2001, vol. 4, pp. PD32-1 -PD32-3.

J. E. Hopcroft and R. M. Karp, "An n5/2 algorithm for maximum matching in bipartite graphs", Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. J. Comput., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 225-231, 1973.

L. Xu, H. G. Perros and G. Rouskas, "Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 136-142, Jan. 2001.

A. E. Eckberg and T. C. Hou, "Effects of output buffer sharing on buffer requirements in an ATDM packet switch", Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '88, pp. 459-466,

M. Karol, M. G. Hluchyj and S. P. Morgan, "Input versus output queuing on a space-division packet switch", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-35, pp. 1347-1357, Dec. 1987.

J. A. Shormans and J. M. Pitts, "Overflow probability in shared cell switched buffers", IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 167-169, May 2000.

M. Murata, "Requirements on ATM switch architectures for quality-of-service", IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E-81B, no. 2, pp. 138-151, Feb. 1998.

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