Abstract

In this paper, we discuss likely trends for manufacturing of free-space microoptics, focusing primarily on diffractive and refractive components. A brief historical overview of microoptics fabrication is presented, followed by our predictions on the future of the field. Examples of future applications,technical challenges, and supporting technologies required for manufacturing of different types of microoptics are discussed.

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Appl. Opt. (8)

Opt. Lett. (10)

L. Vaissie, W. Mohammed and E. G. Johnson, "Monolithic integration of dual-layer optics into broad-area semiconductor laser diodes", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 651-653, 2003.

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, P. Chavel and M. Frank, "Monolithic integration of microlens arrays and fiber holder arrays in poly(methyl methacylate) with fiber self-centering", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 276-278, 1995.

R. Magnusson, D. Shin and Z. S. Liu, "Guided-mode resonance Brewster filter", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 612-614, 1998.

T. J. Suleski, B. Baggett, W. F. Delaney, C. Koehler and E. G. Johnson, "Fabrication of high spatial frequency gratings through computer generated near-field holography", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 602-604, 1999.

E. Chou, S. Y. Lin, J. R. Wendt, S. J. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Quantitative analysis of bending efficiency in photonic-crystal waveguide bends at lambda = 1.55~µ m wavelengths", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, pp. 286-288, 2001.

W. Stork, N. Streibl, H. Haidner and P. Kipfer, "Artificial distributed index media fabricated by zero-order gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1921-1923, 1991.

F. T. Chen and H. G. Craighead, "Diffractive lens fabricated with mostly zeroth-order gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, pp. 177-179, 1996.

J. M. Miller, N. de Beaucoudrey, P. Chavel, E. Cambril and H. Launois, "Synthesis of a subwavelength-pulse-width spatially modulated array illuminator for 0.633 µ m", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, pp. 1399-1401, 1996.

J. N. Mait, A. Scherer, O. Dial, D. W. Prather and X. Gao, "Diffractive lens fabricated with binary features less than 60 nm", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, pp. 381-383, 2000.

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara and J. Koyama, "Fabrication of micro-lenses using electron beam lithography", Opt. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 613-615, 1981.

Other (83)

M. T. Gale and K. Knop, "The fabrication of fine lens arrays by laser beam writing", in Proc. SPIE Industrial Applications of Laser Technology, vol. 398, 1983, pp. 347-353.

W. B. Veldkamp and G. J. Swanson, "Developments in fabrication of binary optics", in Proc. Int. Conf. Computer Generated Holography, vol. 437, 1983, pp. 54-59.

G. J. Swanson, "Binary optics technology: The theory and design of multi-level diffractive optical elements", MIT, Cambridge, MA, ser. LC-2400A, MIT Lincoln Lab. Rep. 854, 1989.

M. B. Stern, "Binary optics fabrication," in Micro-Optics:Elements, Systems, and Applications, H. P. Herzig, Ed. London: U.K.: Taylor Francis, 1997, pp. 53-85.

P. P. Clark and C. Londoño, "Production of kinoforms by single-point diamond machining", Opt. News, pp. 39-40, 1989.

W. H. Lee, "Computer generated holograms: Techniques and applications," in Progress in Optics Vol. XVI, E. Wolf, Ed. Amsterdam: The Netherlands: North-Holland, 1978, pp. 121-232.

L. d'Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy and E. Spitz, "Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses", Opt. Comm., vol. 5, pp. 232-235, 1972.

J. J. Clair and C. I. Abitbol, "Recent advances in phase profile generation," in Progress in Optics Vol. XVI, E. Wolf, Ed. Amsterdam: The Netherlands: North-Holland, 1978, pp. 73 -117.

O. K. Ersoy, "Construction of point images with the scanning electron microscope: A simple algorithm", Optik, vol. 46, pp. 61-66, 1976.

C. L. Coleman, Y. C. Chen, X. Wang, H. Welch and B. TeKolste, "Diffractive optics in a parallel fiber transmitter module," in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Washington, DC: OSA, 2002, pp. 249-252.

E. G. Johnson, J. Stack, C. Koehler and T. J. Suleski, "Diffractive vortex lens for mode-matching graded index fiber," in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Washington, DC: OSA, 2000, pp. 205-207.

E. G. Johnson, J. Stack and C. Koehler, "Light coupling by a vortex lens into graded index fiber", J. Lightwave. Tech., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 753-758, May 2001.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1980.

C. Palmer, Diffraction Grating Handbook, Rochester, NY: Milton Roy, 1994.

B. Guenther, "Manufacturing: The key to binary optics", in Proc. Conf. Binary Optics: An Opportunity for Technical Exchange, vol. 3227, Huntsville, AL, 1993, pp. 1-17.

J. R. Meyers-Arendt, Introduction to Classical and Modern Optics, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1995.

B. R. Brown and A. W. Lohmann, "Complex spatial filtering with binary masks", Appl. Opt. , vol. 5, pp. 967-969, 1966.

A. W. Lohmann and D. P. Paris, "Binary Fraunhofer holograms, generated by computer", Appl. Opt., vol. 6, p. 1739, 1967.

L. Lesem, P. Hirsch and J. Jordan, "The kinoform: A new wavefront reconstruction device", IBM J. Res. Dev., vol. 13, p. 150, 1969.

E. Yablonovitch, "Photonic band-gap structures", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 10, p. 283, 1993.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1995.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths", Nature, vol. 394, pp. 251-253, 1998.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning and A. J. Tuberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography", Nature, vol. 404, pp. 53-56, 2000.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley and N. Davies, "The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 1, pp. 759-766, 1990.

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