Abstract

In this paper, we present and elaborate on die to wafer bonding technology with benzocyclobutene (BCB). This technology allows to fabricate a variety of reliable waferbonded components in a fairly simple way using only standard cleanroom equipment. We demonstrate the fabrication of passive devices such as microring resonators, as well as active components such as lasers and LEDs. We show good performance of these devices by presenting measurements of their characteristics. Furthermore, these devices were subjected to damp-heat testing, demonstrating the good quality of the BCB-bonding procedure. Finally,due to the low thermal conductivity of BCB, thermal management needs some attention. We present an analysis of the thermal problem and suggest a possible solution.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. D. L. Mathine, "The integration of III-V opto-electronics with silicon circuitry", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, pp. 952-959, Jun. 1997.
  2. C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas and B. Aspar, "InP microdisk lasers on silicon wafer: CW room temperature operation at 1.6 µ m", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 222-223, Feb. 2001.
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  8. H. C. Lin, W. H. Wang, K. C. Hsieh and K. Y. Cheng, "Fabrication of 1.55 µ m VCSELS on Si using metallic bonding", IEE Electron. Lett. , vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 516-517, May 2002.
  9. S. R. Sakamoto, A. Jackson and N. Dagli, "Substrate removed GaAs-AlGaAs electro-optic modulators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1244 -1246, Oct. 1999.
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  12. A. Katsnelson, V. Tokranov, M. Yakimov, M. Lamberti and S. Oktyabrsky, "Hybrid integration of III-V opto-electronic devices on Si platform using BCB", in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, vol. 4997, Jun. 2003, pp. 198- 205.
  13. K. Ghawana, D. Delbeke, I. Christiaens, S. Verstuyft and R. Baets, "Grating-assisted resonant-cavity LEDs: Toward thin film devices for heterogeneous integration", in SPIE Conf. Proc., vol. 4947, Brugge, Belgium,Oct. 2002, p. 25.
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  15. V. Dragoi, T. Glinsner, G. Mittendorfer, B. Wieder and P. Lindner, "Adhesive wafer bonding for MEMS applications", in SPIE Conf. Proc., vol. 5116, Gran Canaria, Spain,May 2003, pp. 160- 167.
  16. R. A. Kirchhoff, C. J. Carriere, K. J. Bruza, N. G. Rondan and R. L. Sammler, "Benzocyclobutenes: A new class of high performance polymers", J. Macromolec. Sci. (Chem.), vol. A28, no. 11 and 12, pp. 1079-1113, 1991.
  17. R. Grover, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, O. King, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson and P. T. -Ho, "Vertically coupled GaInAsP-InP microring resonators", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, Apr. 2001.
  18. I. Christiaens, D. V. Thourhout and R. Baets, "Low power thermo-optic tuning of vertically coupled microring resonators", IEE Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 560-561, Apr. 2004.
  19. S. Pinel, A. Marty, J. Taselli, J.-P. Bailbe, E. Beyne, R. V. Hoof, S. Marco, J. R. Morante, O. Vendier and M. Huan, "Thermal modeling and management in ultrathin chip stack technology", IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. , vol. 25, pp. 244-253, Jun. 2002.

Other (19)

D. L. Mathine, "The integration of III-V opto-electronics with silicon circuitry", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, pp. 952-959, Jun. 1997.

C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas and B. Aspar, "InP microdisk lasers on silicon wafer: CW room temperature operation at 1.6 µ m", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 222-223, Feb. 2001.

D. Pasquariello and K. Hjort, "Plasma-assisted InP-to-Si low temperature wafer bonding", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 118-131, Jan./Feb. 2002.

W. P. Eaton and S. H. Risbud, "Silicon wafer-to-wafer bonding at T lower than 200° C with polymethylmethacrylate", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 439-441, 1994.

F. Niklaus, P. Enoksson, E. Kalvesten and G. Stemme, "Low-temperature full wafer adhesive bonding", J. Micromechan. Microeng., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 100-107, 2001.

B. G. Yacobi, S. Martin, K. Davis, A. Hudson and M. Hubert, "Adhesive bonding in microelectronics and photonics", J. Appl. Phys.: Appl. Phys. Rev., vol. 91, no. 10, pp. 6227-6262, May 2002.

H. C. Lin, K. L. Chang, G. W. Pickrell, K. C. Hsieh and K. Y. Cheng, "Low temperature wafer bonding by spin on glass", J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. B, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 752-754, Apr./May 2002.

H. C. Lin, W. H. Wang, K. C. Hsieh and K. Y. Cheng, "Fabrication of 1.55 µ m VCSELS on Si using metallic bonding", IEE Electron. Lett. , vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 516-517, May 2002.

S. R. Sakamoto, A. Jackson and N. Dagli, "Substrate removed GaAs-AlGaAs electro-optic modulators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 1244 -1246, Oct. 1999.

Y. Ma, G. Chang, S. Park, L. Wang and S. T. Ho, "InGaAsP thin-film microdisk resonators fabricated by polymer wafer bonding for wavelength add-drop filters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1495-1497, Nov. 2000.

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hrynniewicz, B. E. Little, F. G. Johnson, K. J. Ritter and P.-T. Ho, "Vertically coupled microring resonators using polymer wafer bonding", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 49-51, Jan. 2001.

A. Katsnelson, V. Tokranov, M. Yakimov, M. Lamberti and S. Oktyabrsky, "Hybrid integration of III-V opto-electronic devices on Si platform using BCB", in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, vol. 4997, Jun. 2003, pp. 198- 205.

K. Ghawana, D. Delbeke, I. Christiaens, S. Verstuyft and R. Baets, "Grating-assisted resonant-cavity LEDs: Toward thin film devices for heterogeneous integration", in SPIE Conf. Proc., vol. 4947, Brugge, Belgium,Oct. 2002, p. 25.

F. Niklaus, H. Andersson, P. Enoksson and G. Stemme, "Low temperature full wafer adhesive bonding of structured wafers", Sens. Actuators A, vol. 92, pp. 235-241, 2001.

V. Dragoi, T. Glinsner, G. Mittendorfer, B. Wieder and P. Lindner, "Adhesive wafer bonding for MEMS applications", in SPIE Conf. Proc., vol. 5116, Gran Canaria, Spain,May 2003, pp. 160- 167.

R. A. Kirchhoff, C. J. Carriere, K. J. Bruza, N. G. Rondan and R. L. Sammler, "Benzocyclobutenes: A new class of high performance polymers", J. Macromolec. Sci. (Chem.), vol. A28, no. 11 and 12, pp. 1079-1113, 1991.

R. Grover, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, O. King, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson and P. T. -Ho, "Vertically coupled GaInAsP-InP microring resonators", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, Apr. 2001.

I. Christiaens, D. V. Thourhout and R. Baets, "Low power thermo-optic tuning of vertically coupled microring resonators", IEE Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 560-561, Apr. 2004.

S. Pinel, A. Marty, J. Taselli, J.-P. Bailbe, E. Beyne, R. V. Hoof, S. Marco, J. R. Morante, O. Vendier and M. Huan, "Thermal modeling and management in ultrathin chip stack technology", IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. , vol. 25, pp. 244-253, Jun. 2002.

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