Abstract

The authors have developed a nanomanufacturing platform based on wafer-level nanoreplication with mold and nanopattern transfer by nanolithography. The nanoreplication process, which is based on imprinting a single-layer spin-coated ultraviolet (UV)-curable resist, achieved good nanopatterning fidelity and on-wafer uniformity with high throughput. Some manufacturing issues of the nanoreplication process, such as the impact of wafer and mold surface particles on nanoreplication yield, are also discussed. Nano-optic devices, such as,quarter-wave plates and polarizers, were manufactured with the nanomanufacturing platform. An average wafer-level optical performance yield of 86% was achieved. The developed technology is applied for high-throughput and low-cost manufacturing nanostructure-based optical devices and integrated optical devices.

© 2005 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. New York: Macmillan, 1964, ch. 14.
  2. S. M. Rytov, "Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium", Sov. Phys. JETP 2, pp. 466-475, 1956.
  3. D. C. Flanders and A. E. white, "Application of sim100 Angstrom linewidth structures fabricated by shadowing techniques", J. Vac. Sci. Technol., vol. 19, pp. 892-900, 1981.
  4. D. C. Flanders, "Submicronmeter periodicity gratings as artificial anisotropic dielectrics", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 42, pp. 492-494, 1983.
  5. T. K. Gaylord, W. E. Baird and M. G. Mohoram, "Zero-reflectivity high spatial-frequency rectangular-groove dielectric surface-relief gratings", Appl. Opt., vol. 25, pp. 4562-4562, 1986.
  6. W. M. Farn, "Binary gratings with increased efficiency", Appl. Opt., vol. 31, pp. 4453-4453, 1992.
  7. J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, R. E. Smith and M. E. Warren, "Subwavelength, binary lenses at infrared wavelengths", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom., vol. B15, pp. 2946-2946, 1997.
  8. R. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. Chou, C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. Sun, F. Xu and Y. Fainman, "Design, fabrication and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. , vol. 14, pp. 1627-1627, 1997.
  9. A. G. Lopez and H. G. Craighead, "Wave-plate polarizing beam splitter based on a form-birefringent multilayer grating", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 1627-1627, 1998.
  10. J. Wang, Z. Yu, W. Wu and S. Y. Chou, "Fabrication of a new broadband TM-pass waveguide polarizer with a double-layer 190 nm metal gratings using nanoimprint lithography", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 2957-2960, 1999.
  11. J. N. Mait, and D. W. Prather, Eds. Selected Papers on Subwavelength Diffractive Optics, 2001.
  12. J. Wang, E. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Chen, G. Henein, A. Nikolov, X. Deng, F. Liu, J. Deng, H. Kostal, S. Y. Chou and Y. K. Park, "Subwavelength optical elements (SOE's)-A path to integrate optical components on a chip", in 2002 Tech. Proc. Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2002, pp. 1144-1152.
  13. J. Wang, W. Zhang, A. Nikolov, X. Deng, B. Tseng, M. Ouyang, L. Chen, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, J. Deng, X. Niu, D. Gan and H. Kostal, "Design and realization of multilayer integrated nanooptic devices", 2003 Tech. Proc. Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC) , Orlando, FL, 2003.
  14. C. Giaconia, R. Torrini, S. K. Murad and C. D. W. Wilkinson, "Artificial dielectric optical structures: A challenge for nanofabrication", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process Phenom., vol. 16, pp. 3903-3903, 1998.
  15. A. S. Farber and J. Hilibrand, "Method of preparing portions of a semiconductor wafer surface for further processing", U.S. Patent, 4 035 226 , Jul. 12, 1977.
  16. J. N. Phillips and E. T. Yeo, "Manufacture of grating structures", WO 93/21671, international application published under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), Oct. 28, 1993.
  17. S. Y. Chou, P. Krauss and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 67, pp. 3114-3114, 1995.
  18. S. Y. Chou, P. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. Guo and L. Zhuang, "Sub-10 nm imprint lithography and applications", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B., Microelectron. Process. Phenom. , vol. 15, pp. 2897-2897, 1996.
  19. M. T. Li, J. Wang, L. Zhuang and S. Y. Chou, "Fabrication of circular optical structures with a 20 nm minimum feature size using nanoimprint lithography", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 673-675, 2000.
  20. J. Haisma, et al. "Mold-assisted nanolithography: A process for reliable pattern replication", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom., vol. 14, pp. 4129-4129, 1996.
  21. M. Colburn, et al. "Step and flash imprint lithography: A new approach to high resolution patterning", Proc. SPIE: Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, vol. 379, pp. 3676-3676, 1999.
  22. T. Bailey, et al. "Step and flash imprint lithography: Template surface treatment and defect analysis", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom. , vol. 18, pp. 3572-3572, 2000.
  23. T. Bailey, B. Smith, B. J. Choi, M. Colburn, M. Meissl, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. G. Ekerdt and C. G. Willson, "J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom.", vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 2806-2810, Nov./Dec. 2001.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (20)

J. Wang, Z. Yu, W. Wu and S. Y. Chou, "Fabrication of a new broadband TM-pass waveguide polarizer with a double-layer 190 nm metal gratings using nanoimprint lithography", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 2957-2960, 1999.

J. N. Mait, and D. W. Prather, Eds. Selected Papers on Subwavelength Diffractive Optics, 2001.

J. Wang, E. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Chen, G. Henein, A. Nikolov, X. Deng, F. Liu, J. Deng, H. Kostal, S. Y. Chou and Y. K. Park, "Subwavelength optical elements (SOE's)-A path to integrate optical components on a chip", in 2002 Tech. Proc. Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2002, pp. 1144-1152.

J. Wang, W. Zhang, A. Nikolov, X. Deng, B. Tseng, M. Ouyang, L. Chen, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, J. Deng, X. Niu, D. Gan and H. Kostal, "Design and realization of multilayer integrated nanooptic devices", 2003 Tech. Proc. Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC) , Orlando, FL, 2003.

C. Giaconia, R. Torrini, S. K. Murad and C. D. W. Wilkinson, "Artificial dielectric optical structures: A challenge for nanofabrication", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process Phenom., vol. 16, pp. 3903-3903, 1998.

A. S. Farber and J. Hilibrand, "Method of preparing portions of a semiconductor wafer surface for further processing", U.S. Patent, 4 035 226 , Jul. 12, 1977.

J. N. Phillips and E. T. Yeo, "Manufacture of grating structures", WO 93/21671, international application published under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), Oct. 28, 1993.

S. Y. Chou, P. Krauss and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 67, pp. 3114-3114, 1995.

S. Y. Chou, P. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. Guo and L. Zhuang, "Sub-10 nm imprint lithography and applications", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B., Microelectron. Process. Phenom. , vol. 15, pp. 2897-2897, 1996.

M. T. Li, J. Wang, L. Zhuang and S. Y. Chou, "Fabrication of circular optical structures with a 20 nm minimum feature size using nanoimprint lithography", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 673-675, 2000.

J. Haisma, et al. "Mold-assisted nanolithography: A process for reliable pattern replication", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom., vol. 14, pp. 4129-4129, 1996.

M. Colburn, et al. "Step and flash imprint lithography: A new approach to high resolution patterning", Proc. SPIE: Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, vol. 379, pp. 3676-3676, 1999.

T. Bailey, et al. "Step and flash imprint lithography: Template surface treatment and defect analysis", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom. , vol. 18, pp. 3572-3572, 2000.

T. Bailey, B. Smith, B. J. Choi, M. Colburn, M. Meissl, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. G. Ekerdt and C. G. Willson, "J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom.", vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 2806-2810, Nov./Dec. 2001.

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, R. E. Smith and M. E. Warren, "Subwavelength, binary lenses at infrared wavelengths", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom., vol. B15, pp. 2946-2946, 1997.

R. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. Chou, C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. Sun, F. Xu and Y. Fainman, "Design, fabrication and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. , vol. 14, pp. 1627-1627, 1997.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th ed. New York: Macmillan, 1964, ch. 14.

S. M. Rytov, "Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium", Sov. Phys. JETP 2, pp. 466-475, 1956.

D. C. Flanders and A. E. white, "Application of sim100 Angstrom linewidth structures fabricated by shadowing techniques", J. Vac. Sci. Technol., vol. 19, pp. 892-900, 1981.

D. C. Flanders, "Submicronmeter periodicity gratings as artificial anisotropic dielectrics", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 42, pp. 492-494, 1983.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.