Abstract

A novel Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on dual antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs) for sensing is proposed. By adjusting the degree of structural symmetry to control the coupling behavior of the dual ARROW, an interferometric sensor without any bending structure can be realized. Operating principles and simulation characteristics of the device are discussed in detail. The refractive-index detection limit of the order of 10-5 is achieved.

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  1. P. V. Lambeck, "Integrated opto-chemical sensors", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 103-116, Apr. 1992.
  2. B. J. Luff, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, R. Wilson and D. J. Schiffrin, "Integrated-optical directional coupler biosensor", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 618-620, Apr. 1996.
  3. E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman and J. Greve, "The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 40, no. 2-3, pp. 147-153, May 1997.
  4. B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff and N. Fabricius, "Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 583-592, Apr. 1998.
  5. F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez and L. M. Lechuga, "Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 92, no. 1-2, pp. 151-158, Jul. 2003.
  6. N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz and J. Ingenhoff, "A gas sensor based on an integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 7, no. 1-3, pp. 672-676, Mar. 1992.
  7. A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser and F. Hutter, "Integrated optical gas sensors using organically modified silicates as sensitive films", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 11, no. 1-3, pp. 361-374, Mar. 1993.
  8. R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman and J. Greve, "Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 209-217, Feb. 1993.
  9. R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, "Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: Design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer system", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 61, no. 1-3, pp. 100-127, Dec. 1999.
  10. M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2 -Si multilayer structures", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 13-15, Jan. 1986.
  11. M. Mann, U. Trutschel, C. Wachter, L. Leine and F. Lederer, "Directional coupler based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides", Opt. Lett., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 805-807, Jun. 1991.
  12. Y.-H. Chen and Y.-T. Huang, "Coupling efficiency analysis and control of dual antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1507-1513, Jun. 1996.
  13. J. Gehler, A. Bräuer and W. Karthe, "Remote coupling over 93 µm using ARROW waveguides in strip configuration", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 218-220, Feb. 1994.
  14. T. Baba and Y. Kokubun, "Dispersion and radiation loss characteristics of antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides-Numerical results and analytical expressions", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1689-1700, Jul. 1992.
  15. R. Muschall, F. Lederer and U. Trutschel, "New ARROW couplers and switches with significantly reduced coupled length", Int. J. Optoelectron., vol. 8, no. 5-6, pp. 537-546, 1993.
  16. B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov and B. H. Johnson, "Integrated four-channel Mach-Zehnder multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si", J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1011-1015, Jun. 1988.
  17. K. Wörhoff, P. V. Lambeck and A. Driessen, "Design, tolerance analysis and fabrication of silicon oxynitride based planar optical waveguides for communication devices", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1401-1407, Aug. 1999.

Other (17)

P. V. Lambeck, "Integrated opto-chemical sensors", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 103-116, Apr. 1992.

B. J. Luff, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, R. Wilson and D. J. Schiffrin, "Integrated-optical directional coupler biosensor", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 618-620, Apr. 1996.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Domínguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman and J. Greve, "The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 40, no. 2-3, pp. 147-153, May 1997.

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff and N. Fabricius, "Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 583-592, Apr. 1998.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez and L. M. Lechuga, "Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 92, no. 1-2, pp. 151-158, Jul. 2003.

N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz and J. Ingenhoff, "A gas sensor based on an integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 7, no. 1-3, pp. 672-676, Mar. 1992.

A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser and F. Hutter, "Integrated optical gas sensors using organically modified silicates as sensitive films", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 11, no. 1-3, pp. 361-374, Mar. 1993.

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman and J. Greve, "Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 209-217, Feb. 1993.

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, "Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: Design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer system", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 61, no. 1-3, pp. 100-127, Dec. 1999.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2 -Si multilayer structures", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 13-15, Jan. 1986.

M. Mann, U. Trutschel, C. Wachter, L. Leine and F. Lederer, "Directional coupler based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides", Opt. Lett., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 805-807, Jun. 1991.

Y.-H. Chen and Y.-T. Huang, "Coupling efficiency analysis and control of dual antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1507-1513, Jun. 1996.

J. Gehler, A. Bräuer and W. Karthe, "Remote coupling over 93 µm using ARROW waveguides in strip configuration", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 218-220, Feb. 1994.

T. Baba and Y. Kokubun, "Dispersion and radiation loss characteristics of antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides-Numerical results and analytical expressions", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1689-1700, Jul. 1992.

R. Muschall, F. Lederer and U. Trutschel, "New ARROW couplers and switches with significantly reduced coupled length", Int. J. Optoelectron., vol. 8, no. 5-6, pp. 537-546, 1993.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov and B. H. Johnson, "Integrated four-channel Mach-Zehnder multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si", J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1011-1015, Jun. 1988.

K. Wörhoff, P. V. Lambeck and A. Driessen, "Design, tolerance analysis and fabrication of silicon oxynitride based planar optical waveguides for communication devices", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1401-1407, Aug. 1999.

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