Abstract

An overlay of higher refractive index than the cladding is deposited on a long-period fiber grating (LPFG). This causes large attenuation-band shifts in the transmission spectrum, which permits the improvement of the sensitivity of the device to ambient and overlay refractive-index changes. To obtain maximum sensitivity for specific overlay and ambient refractive indexes, an optimum overlay thickness (OOT) must be selected. For complex overlay refractive indexes, there is an additional phenomenon of vanishing of the attenuation bands. This occurs for specific overlay-thickness values. The problem is analyzed with a numerical method based on linearly polarized (LP)-mode approximation and coupled-mode theory. Experimental results are contrasted with theoretical ones.

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  1. J. R. Qiang and H. E. Chen, "Gain flattening fibre filters using phase shifted long period fibre grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1132-1133, May 1998.
  2. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bathia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 58-65, Jan. 1996.
  3. B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark and A. M. Vengsarkar, "All-optical switching in long period fiber gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 883-885, Jun. 1997.
  4. K. W. Chung and S. Yin, "Analysis of widely tunable long-period grating by use of an ultrathin cladding layer and higher-order cladding mode coupling", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 812-814, Apr. 2004.
  5. V. Bathia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 692-694, May 1996.
  6. V. Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing", Opt. Express, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 457-466, May 1999.
  7. Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek and Y. Chung, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 476-481, Mar. 2003.
  8. C. C. Ye, S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Simultaneous temperature and bend sensing using long-period fiber gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 14, pp. 1007-1009, Jul. 2000.
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  10. R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu and K. P. Dowker, "Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1709-1713, Oct. 2001.
  11. S. T. Lee, R. D. Kumar, P. S. Kumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan and V. P. N. Nampoori, "Long period gratings in multimode optical fibers: Application in chemical sensing", Opt. Commun., vol. 224, no. 4-6, pp. 237-241, Sep. 2003.
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  13. M. Achaerandio, F. J. Arregui and I. R. Matias, "Electrostatic self-assembled thin films deposited on optical fiber long-period gratings for the fabrication of chemical sensors", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5502, Santander, Spain, 2004, pp. 300-303.
  14. I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matias and F. J. Arregui, "Deposition of an overlay with electrostactic self-assembly method in long period fiber gratings", Opt Lett., vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 720-722, Apr. 2005.
  15. S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application", Meas. Sci Technol., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. R49-R61, May 2003.
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  18. D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, "Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fiber grating devices", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 343-345, Mar. 1999.
  19. Y. Koymada, "Numerical analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in long-period fiber gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 308-310, Apr. 2001.
  20. I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui and R. O. Claus, "ESA based in-fiber nanocavity for hydrogen peroxide detection", IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 187-193, Mar. 2005.
  21. G. Stewart and B. Culshaw, "Optical waveguide modelling design for evanescent field chemical sensor", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. S249-S259, Mar. 1994.
  22. D. Gloge, "Weakly guiding fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 2252-2258, Oct. 1971.
  23. K. Morishita, "Numerical analysis of pulse broadening in grated index optical fibers", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. MTT-29, no. 4, pp. 348-352, Apr. 1981.
  24. I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui and P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 56-69, Jan. 2005.

Other (24)

J. R. Qiang and H. E. Chen, "Gain flattening fibre filters using phase shifted long period fibre grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1132-1133, May 1998.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bathia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 58-65, Jan. 1996.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark and A. M. Vengsarkar, "All-optical switching in long period fiber gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 883-885, Jun. 1997.

K. W. Chung and S. Yin, "Analysis of widely tunable long-period grating by use of an ultrathin cladding layer and higher-order cladding mode coupling", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 812-814, Apr. 2004.

V. Bathia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 692-694, May 1996.

V. Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing", Opt. Express, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 457-466, May 1999.

Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek and Y. Chung, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 476-481, Mar. 2003.

C. C. Ye, S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Simultaneous temperature and bend sensing using long-period fiber gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 14, pp. 1007-1009, Jul. 2000.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1606-1612, Sep. 1998.

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu and K. P. Dowker, "Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1709-1713, Oct. 2001.

S. T. Lee, R. D. Kumar, P. S. Kumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. G. Vallabhan and V. P. N. Nampoori, "Long period gratings in multimode optical fibers: Application in chemical sensing", Opt. Commun., vol. 224, no. 4-6, pp. 237-241, Sep. 2003.

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam and G. J. Ashwell, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 686-688, May 2002.

M. Achaerandio, F. J. Arregui and I. R. Matias, "Electrostatic self-assembled thin films deposited on optical fiber long-period gratings for the fabrication of chemical sensors", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5502, Santander, Spain, 2004, pp. 300-303.

I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matias and F. J. Arregui, "Deposition of an overlay with electrostactic self-assembly method in long period fiber gratings", Opt Lett., vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 720-722, Apr. 2005.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application", Meas. Sci Technol., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. R49-R61, May 2003.

E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis and T. K. Gaylord, "Transmission characteristics of long-period fiber gratings having arbitrary azimuthal/radial refractive index variation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 218-227, Jan. 2003.

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fiber gratings filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, Aug. 1997.

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, "Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fiber grating devices", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 343-345, Mar. 1999.

Y. Koymada, "Numerical analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in long-period fiber gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 308-310, Apr. 2001.

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui and R. O. Claus, "ESA based in-fiber nanocavity for hydrogen peroxide detection", IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 187-193, Mar. 2005.

G. Stewart and B. Culshaw, "Optical waveguide modelling design for evanescent field chemical sensor", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. S249-S259, Mar. 1994.

D. Gloge, "Weakly guiding fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 2252-2258, Oct. 1971.

K. Morishita, "Numerical analysis of pulse broadening in grated index optical fibers", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. MTT-29, no. 4, pp. 348-352, Apr. 1981.

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui and P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 56-69, Jan. 2005.

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