Abstract

This paper confirms that numerical aperture (NA) is a key factor in mode coupling [the energy transfer among propagating modes in multimode fibers (MMF)] and that providing a high NA is a viable solution to reduce mode coupling in graded-index plastic optical fibers (GI POFs). Furthermore, the authors propose a new refractive-index-profile design of GI POFs when only small mode groups are launched (restricted-launch condition), which is a combined profile with the index exponents lower and higher than optimum value for the core center and periphery, respectively. The advantage of the new index profile is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Furthermore, it is verified that the high-bandwidth performance of GI POF with the new index profile under the restricted-launch condition is maintained even when statistical fiber bendings are added to the GI POF and when misalignment is caused at the optical coupling between the light source and the GI POF.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kuchta, Y. Kwark, P. Pleunis and G. Kuyt, "15.6-Gb/s transmission over 1 km of next generation multimode fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 717-719, May 2002.
  2. J. Goudeau, G. Widawski, M. Rossbach, B. Bareel, R. Helvenstein and L. Huff, "GI POF for Gb ethernet links", in Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf., Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 76-81.
  3. A. M. J. Koonen, H. van den Boom, L. Bakker, J. Zeng and G. D. Khoe, "Integration of services in short-range multimode polymer optical fibre networks by exploiting the higher-order fibre passbands", in Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf., Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 90-97.
  4. S. Junger, M. Schrader, A. Ploetz, W. Tschekalinskij and N. Weber, "High linearity CATV transmission with GI-POF and SI-POF", in Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf., Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 106-112.
  5. T. Ishigure, E. Nihei and Y. Koike, "Graded-index polymer optical fiber for high speed data communication", Appl. Opt., vol. 33, no. 19, pp. 4261-4266, Jul. 1994.
  6. T. Ishigure, M. Sato, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki and Y. Koike, "Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2095-2100, Nov. 1997.
  7. T. Ishigure, Y. Koike and J. W. Fleming, "Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 178-184, Feb. 2000.
  8. T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi and Y. Koike, "Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1449-1556, Aug. 2002.
  9. S. Takahashi, "Experimental studies on launching conditions in evaluating transmission characteristics of POFs", in Proc. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF), The Hague, The Netherlands, 1993, pp. 83-85.
  10. A. F. Garito, J. Wang and R. Gao, "Effects of random perturbations in plastic optical fibers", Science, vol. 281, no. 5379, pp. 962-967, Aug. 1998.
  11. T. Ishigure, M. Kano and Y. Koike, "Which is a more serious factor to the bandwidth of GI POF: Differential mode attenuation or mode coupling?", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 959-965, Jul. 2000.
  12. S. E. Golowich, W. White, W. A. Reed and E. Knudsen, "Quantitative estimates of mode coupling and differential modal attenuation in perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fiber", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 111-121, Jan. 2003.
  13. D. Marcuse, "Mode mixing with reduced losses in parabolic-index fibers", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 777-802, Jun. 1976.
  14. Y. Ohtsuka and Y. Koike, "Determination of the refractive-index profile of light-focusing rods: Accuracy of a method using Interphako interference microscopy", Appl. Opt., vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 2866-2872, Aug. 1980.
  15. D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurements, New York: Academic, 1981.
  16. D. Marcuse, "Coupled mode theory of round optical fiber", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 817-842, Jun. 1973.
  17. D. G. Cunningham, W. G. Lane and B. Lane, Gigabit Ethernet Networking, Indianapolis, IN: Macmillan, 1999.
  18. L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham and M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fiber links", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 324-331, Mar. 1998.
  19. K. Ohdoko, T. Ishigure and Y. Koike, "Propagating mode analysis and design of waveguide parameters of GI POF for very short-reach network use", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 79-81, Jan. 2005.
  20. "FOTP-203-launched power distribution measurement procedure for graded-index multimode fiber transmitters", TIA/EIA-455-203, Jun. 2001.

Other (20)

P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kuchta, Y. Kwark, P. Pleunis and G. Kuyt, "15.6-Gb/s transmission over 1 km of next generation multimode fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 717-719, May 2002.

J. Goudeau, G. Widawski, M. Rossbach, B. Bareel, R. Helvenstein and L. Huff, "GI POF for Gb ethernet links", in Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf., Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 76-81.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. van den Boom, L. Bakker, J. Zeng and G. D. Khoe, "Integration of services in short-range multimode polymer optical fibre networks by exploiting the higher-order fibre passbands", in Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf., Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 90-97.

S. Junger, M. Schrader, A. Ploetz, W. Tschekalinskij and N. Weber, "High linearity CATV transmission with GI-POF and SI-POF", in Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf., Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 106-112.

T. Ishigure, E. Nihei and Y. Koike, "Graded-index polymer optical fiber for high speed data communication", Appl. Opt., vol. 33, no. 19, pp. 4261-4266, Jul. 1994.

T. Ishigure, M. Sato, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki and Y. Koike, "Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2095-2100, Nov. 1997.

T. Ishigure, Y. Koike and J. W. Fleming, "Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 178-184, Feb. 2000.

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi and Y. Koike, "Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1449-1556, Aug. 2002.

S. Takahashi, "Experimental studies on launching conditions in evaluating transmission characteristics of POFs", in Proc. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF), The Hague, The Netherlands, 1993, pp. 83-85.

A. F. Garito, J. Wang and R. Gao, "Effects of random perturbations in plastic optical fibers", Science, vol. 281, no. 5379, pp. 962-967, Aug. 1998.

T. Ishigure, M. Kano and Y. Koike, "Which is a more serious factor to the bandwidth of GI POF: Differential mode attenuation or mode coupling?", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 959-965, Jul. 2000.

S. E. Golowich, W. White, W. A. Reed and E. Knudsen, "Quantitative estimates of mode coupling and differential modal attenuation in perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fiber", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 111-121, Jan. 2003.

D. Marcuse, "Mode mixing with reduced losses in parabolic-index fibers", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 777-802, Jun. 1976.

Y. Ohtsuka and Y. Koike, "Determination of the refractive-index profile of light-focusing rods: Accuracy of a method using Interphako interference microscopy", Appl. Opt., vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 2866-2872, Aug. 1980.

D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurements, New York: Academic, 1981.

D. Marcuse, "Coupled mode theory of round optical fiber", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 817-842, Jun. 1973.

D. G. Cunningham, W. G. Lane and B. Lane, Gigabit Ethernet Networking, Indianapolis, IN: Macmillan, 1999.

L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham and M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fiber links", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 324-331, Mar. 1998.

K. Ohdoko, T. Ishigure and Y. Koike, "Propagating mode analysis and design of waveguide parameters of GI POF for very short-reach network use", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 79-81, Jan. 2005.

"FOTP-203-launched power distribution measurement procedure for graded-index multimode fiber transmitters", TIA/EIA-455-203, Jun. 2001.

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