Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology used in long-haul transmission systems has steadily progressed over the past few years. Newly installed state-of-the-art transoceanic systems now have terabit per second maximum capacity, while being flexible enough to have an initial deployed capacity at a fraction of the maximum. The steady capacity growth of these long-haul fiber-optic cable systems has resulted from many improvements in WDM transmission techniques and an increased understanding of WDM optical propagation. Important strides have been made in areas of dispersion management, gain equalization, modulation formats, and error-correcting codes that have made possible the demonstration of capacities approaching 4 Tb/s over transoceanic distances in laboratory experiments.
© 2005 IEEEPDF Article