Abstract

A uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD) is monolithically integrated with a wideband log-periodic toothed antenna for generating millimeter and submillimeter waves at frequencies of up to terahertz range. A module with a quasi-optical output port fabricated for practical use operates up to 1.5 THz and generates an output power of 2.3 µW at 1.04 THz with good linearity. The output power level and the operation frequency are records for wideband PD modules operating at 1.55 µm. An investigation of the operational characteristics of the UTC-PD reveals that the effective use of the electron-velocity overshoot in the junction depletion layer is important for maximizing the output power in the terahertz range.

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  26. H. Ito and T. Nagatsuma, "High-speed and high-output-power uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4999, San Jose, CA, 2003, pp. 156-166.
  27. P. G. Huggard, B. N. Ellison, P. Shen, N. J. Gomes, P. A. Davis, W. P. Shillue, A. Vaccari and J. M. Payne, "Generation of millimetre and sub-millimetre waves by photomixing in 1.55 µm wavelength photodiode", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 327-328, Mar. 2002.
  28. S. M. Duffy, S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, A. Jackson, A. C. Gossard and S. Matsuura, "Accurate modeling of dual dipole and slot elements used with photomixers for coherent terahertz output power", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1032-1038, Jun. 2001.

Other (28)

T. Nagatsuma, "Photonic measurement technologies for high-speed electronics", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1655-1663, Nov. 2002.

T. Minotani, A. Hirata and T. Nagatsuma, "A broadband 120-GHz Schottky-diode receiver for 10-Gbit/s wireless links", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E86-C, no. 8, pp. 1501-1505, Aug. 2003.

J. Payne, B. Shillue and A. Vaccari, "Photonic techniques for use on the Atacama large millimeter array", in Tech. Dig. Int. Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics, Melbourne, Australia, 1999, pp. 105-108.

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith and K. A. MacIntosh, "Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 1480-1484, Feb. 1993.

K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. Mcmahon, W. F. Dinatale and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Terahertz photomixing with diode lasers in low-temperature-grown GaAs", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 67, no. 26, pp. 3844-3846, Dec. 1995.

A. Stöhr, A. Malcoci, A. Sauerwald, I. C. Mayorga, R. Güsten and D. S. Jäger, "Ultra-wide-band traveling-wave photodetectors for photonic local oscillators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3062-3070, Dec. 2003.

K. Kato, S. Hata, K. Kawano and A. Kozen, "Design of ultrawide-band, high-sensitivity p-i-n photodetectors", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E76-C, no. 2, pp. 214-221, Feb. 1993.

T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma and T. Furuta, "Uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes", in Tech. Dig. Ultrafast Electronics Optoelectronics, Incline Village, NV, 1997, pp. 83-87.

H. Ito, T. Furuta, S. Kodama and T. Ishibashi, "InP/InGaAs uni-travelling-carrier photodiode with 310 GHz bandwidth", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 21, pp. 1809-1810, Oct. 2000.

H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, A. Hirata, T. Minotani, A. Sasaki, Y. Hirota and T. Ishibashi, "High-power photonic millimeter-wave generation at 100 GHz using matching-circuit-integrated uni-travelling-carrier photodiodes", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron., vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 138-142, Apr. 2003.

T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimizu and Y. Miyamoto, "InP/InGaAs uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E83-C, no. 6, pp. 938-949, Jun. 2000.

H. Ito, T. Furuta and T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and high-output uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E84-C, no. 10, pp. 1448-1454, Oct. 2001.

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma and T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and high-output InP/InGaAs uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 709-727, Jul./Aug. 2004.

A. Stöhr, R. Heinzelmann, K. Hagedorn, R. Güsten, F. Schäfer, H. Stüer, F. Siebe, P. van der Wal, V. Krozer, M. Feiginov and D. Jäger, "Integrated 460 GHz photonic transmitter module", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 22, pp. 1347-1348, Oct. 2001.

H. Ito, T. Furuta, Y. Hirota, T. Ishibashi, A. Hirata, T. Nagatsuma, H. Matsuo, T. Noguchi and M. Ishiguro, "Photonic millimeter-wave emission at 300 GHz using an antenna-integrated uni-travelling-carrier photodiode", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 17, pp. 989-990, Aug. 2002.

H. Ito, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, K. Yoshino, Y. Hirota and T. Ishibashi, "Photonic terahertz-wave generation using an antenna-integrated uni-travelling-carrier photodiode", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 25, pp. 1828-1829, Dec. 2003.

H. Matsuo, A. Sakamoto and S. Matsushita, "FTS measurements of sub-millimeter-wave atmospheric opacity at Pampa La Bola", Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn., vol. 50, pp. 359-366, Jun. 1998.

F. Nakajima, T. Furuta and H. Ito, "High-power continuous-terahertz-wave generation using resonant-antenna-integrated uni-travelling-carrier photodiode", Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 20, pp. 1297-1299, Sep. 2004.

J. E. Bowers and C. A. Burrus Jr., "Ultrawide-band long-wavelength p-I-n photodetectors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 10, pp. 1339-1350, Oct. 1987.

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman and M. Dagenais, "Nonlinearities in p-I-n microwave photodetectors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 84-96, Jan. 1996.

T. Furuta, H. Ito and T. Ishibashi, "Photoresponse dynamics of uni-traveling-carrier and conventional pin-photodiodes", in Institute Physics Conf. Series, 2000, pp. 419-422.

T. Ishibashi, "High speed heterostructure devices," in Semiconductors and Semimetals, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1994,vol. 41,ch. 5, p. 333.

A. F. J. Levi, "Nonequilibrium electron transport in heterojunction bipolar transistors," in InP HBTs: Growth, Processing, and Applications, Boston, MA: Artech House, 1995, ch. 4, p. 93.

Y. K. Chen, A. F. J. Levi, R. N. Nottenburg, P. H. Beton and M. B. Panish, "High-frequency study of nonequilibrium transport in heterostructure bipolar transistors", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 55, no. 17, pp. 1789-1791, Oct. 1989.

K. Kurishima, H. Nakajima, T. Kobayashi, Y. Matsuoka and T. Ishibashi, "Fabrication and characterization of high-performance InP/InGaAs double-heterojunction bipolar transistors", IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1319-1326, Aug. 1994.

H. Ito and T. Nagatsuma, "High-speed and high-output-power uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4999, San Jose, CA, 2003, pp. 156-166.

P. G. Huggard, B. N. Ellison, P. Shen, N. J. Gomes, P. A. Davis, W. P. Shillue, A. Vaccari and J. M. Payne, "Generation of millimetre and sub-millimetre waves by photomixing in 1.55 µm wavelength photodiode", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 327-328, Mar. 2002.

S. M. Duffy, S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, A. Jackson, A. C. Gossard and S. Matsuura, "Accurate modeling of dual dipole and slot elements used with photomixers for coherent terahertz output power", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1032-1038, Jun. 2001.

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