Abstract

Long-period fiber gratings (LPGs) have been inscribed in nitrogen-doped fibers by electrical arc discharge. The influence of drawing tension as well as external load applied during arc discharge on coupling strength has been investigated. The influence of drawing tension on the grating's coupling strength is found to be negligible, whereas the coupling strength increases considerably with external load. Tomographic stress profiles of the fiber have been recorded before and after electric arc discharge. The axial stress modulation in the core region of the grating was found to be smaller than 10 MPa and is thus too small to be the dominating mechanism for grating formation.

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano and C. R. Davidson, "Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 336-338, 1996.
  2. Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek and Y. Chung, "Multiwavelength Raman fiber-ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 383-385, Mar. 2003.
  3. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 58-65, Jan. 1996.
  4. T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fiber grating filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, 1997.
  5. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, K. A. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson and I. Skinner, "Efficient mode conversion in telecommunication fiber using externally written gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 16, pp. 1270-1272, Aug. 1990.
  6. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 73-80, 1994.
  7. Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 646-648, 1999.
  8. F. Hindle, E. Fertein, C. Przygodzki, F. Dürr, L. Paccou, R. Bocquet, P. Niay, H. G. Limberger and M. Douay, "Inscription of long-period gratings in pure silica and germano-silicate fiber cores by femtosecond laser irradiation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1861-1863, Aug. 2004.
  9. J. Nishii, "Permanent index changes in Ge-SiO2 glasses by excimer laser irradiation", Mat. Sci. Eng., B, vol. B54, no. 1-2, pp. 1-10, 1998.
  10. P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Cochet and B. Leuenberger, "Tension increase correlated to refractive-index change in fibers containing UV-written Bragg gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1346-1348, 1995.
  11. H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe and F. Cochet, "Compaction-and photoelastic-induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 68, no. 22, pp. 3069-3071, 1996.
  12. F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 24, pp. 4983-4985, 2004.
  13. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 302-303, Feb. 1998.
  14. B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek and W. T. Han, "Residual stress relaxation in the core of optical fiber by CO2 laser irradiation", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 21, pp. 1657-1659, 2001.
  15. B. H. Kim, T. J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek and W. T. Han, "Effect of CO2 laser irradiation on the refractive-index change in optical fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 19, pp. 3809-3815, 2002.
  16. S. G. Kosinski and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Splicer-based long-period fiber gratings", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), San Diego, CA, 1998, pp. 278-279.
  17. G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. M. Dianov and V. B. Sulimov, "High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings using an electric arc", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1574-1579, Oct. 2001.
  18. K. Morishita and Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 625-630, Feb. 2004.
  19. V. I. Karpov, M. V. Grekov, E. M. Dianov, K. M. Golant, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov and R. R. Khrapko, "Mode-field converters and long-period gratings fabricated by thermo-diffusion in nitrogen-doped silica-core fibers", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), San Diego, CA, 1998, pp. 279-280.
  20. P. Palai, M. N. Satyanarayan, M. Das, K. Thyagarajan and B. P. Pal, "Characterization and simulation of long period gratings fabricated using electric discharge", Opt. Commun., vol. 193, no. 1-6, pp. 181-185, 2001.
  21. T. Enomoto, M. Shigehara, S. Ishikawa, T. Danzuka and H. Kanamori, "Long-period fiber grating in a pure-silica-core fiber written by residual stress relaxation", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), San Diego, CA, 1998, pp. 277-278.
  22. M. Verhaegen, P. Orsini, D. Perron, X. Daxhelet and S. Lacroix, "Long period gratings fabrication techniques", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4087, QC, Canada, 2000, pp. 156-161.
  23. A. Malki, G. Humbert, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukhenter and A. Boudrioua, "Investigation of the writing mechansim of electric-arc-induced long-period fiber gratings", Appl. Opt., vol. 42, no. 19, pp. 3776-3779, 2003.
  24. M. Kim, D. Lee, B. I. Hong and H. Chung, "Performance characteristics of long-period fiber-gratings made from periodic tapers induced by electric-arc discharge", J. Korean Phys. Soc., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 369-373, 2002.
  25. E. M. Dianov, K. M. Golant, R. R. Khrapko, A. S. Kurkov and A. L. Tomashuk, "Low-hydrogen silicon oxynitride optical fibers prepared by SPCVD", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1471-1474, Jul. 1995.
  26. P. K. Bachmann, W. Hermann, H. Wehr and D. U. Wiechert, "Stress in optical waveguides. II. Fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1175-1182, 1987.
  27. W. Hermann, M. Hutjens and D. U. Wiechert, "Stress in optical waveguides. 3. Stress induced index change", Appl. Opt., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1980-1983, 1989.
  28. G. Rego, L. M. M. B. F. Santos, B. Schröder, P. V. S. Marques, J. L. Santos and H. M. Salgado, "In situ temperature measurement of an optical fiber submitted to electric arc discharges", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 2111-2113, Sep. 2004.
  29. Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek and D. Y. Kim, "Measurement method for profiling the residual stress and the strain-optic coefficient of an optical fiber", Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 21-26, 2002.
  30. Y. Park, U. C. Paek and D. Y. Kim, "Complete determination of the stress tensor of a polarization-maintaining fiber by photoelastic tomography", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 1217-1219, 2002.
  31. B. L. Bachim and T. K. Gaylord, "Polarization-dependent loss and birefringence in long-period fiber gratings", Appl. Opt., vol. 42, no. 34, pp. 6816-6823, 2003.
  32. I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun and B. Y. Kim, "Long-period fiber gratings based on periodic microbends", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1263-1265, 1999.
  33. W. D. Kingery, H. K. Bowen and D. R. Uhlmann, "Introduction to ceramics," in Wiley Series on the Science and Technology of Materials, New York: Wiley, 1976,vol. II, pp. 816-846.
  34. R. H. Doremus, "Viscosity of silica", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 7619-7629, 2002.
  35. Y. Mohanna, J. M. Saugrain, J. C. Rousseau and P. Ledoux, "Relaxation of internal stresses in optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1799-1802, Dec. 1990.
  36. P. L. Chu and T. Whitbread, "Stress transformation due to fusion splicing in optical fibre", Electron. Lett., vol. 20, no. 14, pp. 599-600, Jul. 1984.
  37. B. I. Yakobson, P. J. Moyer and M. A. Paesler, "Kinetic limits for sensing tip morphology in near-field scanning optical microscopes", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, no. 11, pp. 7984-7986, 1993.
  38. V. I. Karpov, M. V. Grekov, E. M. Dianov, K. M. Golant and R. R. Khrapko, "Ultra-thermostable long-period gratings written in nitrogen-doped silica fibers", in Proc. Reliability Photonics Materials and Structures Symp., San Francisco, CA, 1998, pp. 391-396.

Other (38)

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano and C. R. Davidson, "Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 336-338, 1996.

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek and Y. Chung, "Multiwavelength Raman fiber-ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 383-385, Mar. 2003.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 58-65, Jan. 1996.

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fiber grating filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, 1997.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, K. A. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson and I. Skinner, "Efficient mode conversion in telecommunication fiber using externally written gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 16, pp. 1270-1272, Aug. 1990.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 73-80, 1994.

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 646-648, 1999.

F. Hindle, E. Fertein, C. Przygodzki, F. Dürr, L. Paccou, R. Bocquet, P. Niay, H. G. Limberger and M. Douay, "Inscription of long-period gratings in pure silica and germano-silicate fiber cores by femtosecond laser irradiation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1861-1863, Aug. 2004.

J. Nishii, "Permanent index changes in Ge-SiO2 glasses by excimer laser irradiation", Mat. Sci. Eng., B, vol. B54, no. 1-2, pp. 1-10, 1998.

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Cochet and B. Leuenberger, "Tension increase correlated to refractive-index change in fibers containing UV-written Bragg gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1346-1348, 1995.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathe and F. Cochet, "Compaction-and photoelastic-induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 68, no. 22, pp. 3069-3071, 1996.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 24, pp. 4983-4985, 2004.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 302-303, Feb. 1998.

B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek and W. T. Han, "Residual stress relaxation in the core of optical fiber by CO2 laser irradiation", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 21, pp. 1657-1659, 2001.

B. H. Kim, T. J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek and W. T. Han, "Effect of CO2 laser irradiation on the refractive-index change in optical fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 19, pp. 3809-3815, 2002.

S. G. Kosinski and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Splicer-based long-period fiber gratings", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), San Diego, CA, 1998, pp. 278-279.

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. M. Dianov and V. B. Sulimov, "High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings using an electric arc", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1574-1579, Oct. 2001.

K. Morishita and Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 625-630, Feb. 2004.

V. I. Karpov, M. V. Grekov, E. M. Dianov, K. M. Golant, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov and R. R. Khrapko, "Mode-field converters and long-period gratings fabricated by thermo-diffusion in nitrogen-doped silica-core fibers", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), San Diego, CA, 1998, pp. 279-280.

P. Palai, M. N. Satyanarayan, M. Das, K. Thyagarajan and B. P. Pal, "Characterization and simulation of long period gratings fabricated using electric discharge", Opt. Commun., vol. 193, no. 1-6, pp. 181-185, 2001.

T. Enomoto, M. Shigehara, S. Ishikawa, T. Danzuka and H. Kanamori, "Long-period fiber grating in a pure-silica-core fiber written by residual stress relaxation", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), San Diego, CA, 1998, pp. 277-278.

M. Verhaegen, P. Orsini, D. Perron, X. Daxhelet and S. Lacroix, "Long period gratings fabrication techniques", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4087, QC, Canada, 2000, pp. 156-161.

A. Malki, G. Humbert, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukhenter and A. Boudrioua, "Investigation of the writing mechansim of electric-arc-induced long-period fiber gratings", Appl. Opt., vol. 42, no. 19, pp. 3776-3779, 2003.

M. Kim, D. Lee, B. I. Hong and H. Chung, "Performance characteristics of long-period fiber-gratings made from periodic tapers induced by electric-arc discharge", J. Korean Phys. Soc., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 369-373, 2002.

E. M. Dianov, K. M. Golant, R. R. Khrapko, A. S. Kurkov and A. L. Tomashuk, "Low-hydrogen silicon oxynitride optical fibers prepared by SPCVD", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1471-1474, Jul. 1995.

P. K. Bachmann, W. Hermann, H. Wehr and D. U. Wiechert, "Stress in optical waveguides. II. Fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1175-1182, 1987.

W. Hermann, M. Hutjens and D. U. Wiechert, "Stress in optical waveguides. 3. Stress induced index change", Appl. Opt., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1980-1983, 1989.

G. Rego, L. M. M. B. F. Santos, B. Schröder, P. V. S. Marques, J. L. Santos and H. M. Salgado, "In situ temperature measurement of an optical fiber submitted to electric arc discharges", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 2111-2113, Sep. 2004.

Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek and D. Y. Kim, "Measurement method for profiling the residual stress and the strain-optic coefficient of an optical fiber", Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 21-26, 2002.

Y. Park, U. C. Paek and D. Y. Kim, "Complete determination of the stress tensor of a polarization-maintaining fiber by photoelastic tomography", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 1217-1219, 2002.

B. L. Bachim and T. K. Gaylord, "Polarization-dependent loss and birefringence in long-period fiber gratings", Appl. Opt., vol. 42, no. 34, pp. 6816-6823, 2003.

I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun and B. Y. Kim, "Long-period fiber gratings based on periodic microbends", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1263-1265, 1999.

W. D. Kingery, H. K. Bowen and D. R. Uhlmann, "Introduction to ceramics," in Wiley Series on the Science and Technology of Materials, New York: Wiley, 1976,vol. II, pp. 816-846.

R. H. Doremus, "Viscosity of silica", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 7619-7629, 2002.

Y. Mohanna, J. M. Saugrain, J. C. Rousseau and P. Ledoux, "Relaxation of internal stresses in optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1799-1802, Dec. 1990.

P. L. Chu and T. Whitbread, "Stress transformation due to fusion splicing in optical fibre", Electron. Lett., vol. 20, no. 14, pp. 599-600, Jul. 1984.

B. I. Yakobson, P. J. Moyer and M. A. Paesler, "Kinetic limits for sensing tip morphology in near-field scanning optical microscopes", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, no. 11, pp. 7984-7986, 1993.

V. I. Karpov, M. V. Grekov, E. M. Dianov, K. M. Golant and R. R. Khrapko, "Ultra-thermostable long-period gratings written in nitrogen-doped silica fibers", in Proc. Reliability Photonics Materials and Structures Symp., San Francisco, CA, 1998, pp. 391-396.

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