Abstract

One-dimensional (1-D) deep-etched gratings on a specially grown AlGaAs wafer were designed and fabricated. The gratings were fabricated using state-of-the-art electron beam lithography and high-aspect-ratio reactive ion etching (RIE) in order to achieve the required narrow deep air slots with good accuracy and reproducibility. Since remarkable etch depths (up to 1.5 µm), which completely cut through the waveguide core layer, have been attained, gratings composed of only five periods (and, thus, shorter than 6 µm) have a bandgap larger than 100 nm. A defect was introduced by increasing the width of the central semiconductor tooth to create microcavities that exhibit a narrow transmission peak (less than 7 nm) around the wavelength of 1530 nm. The transmission spectra between 1460 and 1580 nm have been systematically measured, and the losses have been estimated for a set of gratings, both with and without a defect, for different periods and air slot dimensions. Numerical results obtained via a bidirectional beam propagation code allowed the evaluation of transmissivity, reflectivity, and diffraction losses. By comparing experimental results with the authors' numerical findings, a clear picture of the role of the grating's geometric parameters in determining its spectral features and diffractive losses is illustrated.

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Other (28)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals, Molding the Flow of Light, Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1995.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue and S. Brand, "Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths", Nature, vol. 383, no. 6602, pp. 699-702, Oct. 1996.

T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic crystals in the optical regime-Past, present and future", Prog. Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 51-96, Mar. 1999.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Demonstration of highly efficient waveguiding in a photonic crystal slab at the 1.5 µm wavelength", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 1297-1299, Sep. 2000.

H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, D. Labilloy, M. Rattier, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle, C. Jouanin and D. Cassagne, "Optical and confinement properties of two dimensional photonic crystals", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2063-2077, Nov. 1999.

H. Benisty, D. Labilloy, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, D. Cassagne, A. Beraud and C. Jouanin, "Radiation losses of waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals: Positive role of the substrate", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 532-534, Jan. 2000.

T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Optical characterization of waveguide based photonic microstructures", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 1613-1615, Mar. 1996.

W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Taillaert, R. Baets and D. De Zutter, "Out-of-plane scattering in photonic crystal slabs", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 565-567, Jun. 2001.

W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Taillaert, R. Baets and D. De Zutter, "Out-of-plane scattering in 1-D photonic crystal slabs", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 34, no. 1-3, pp. 195-203, Jan.-Mar. 2002.

T. F. Krauss, B. Vögele, C. R. Stanley and R. M. De La Rue, "Waveguide microcavity based on photonic microstructures", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 176-178, Feb. 1997.

T. F. Krauss, O. Painter, A. Scherer, J. S. Roberts and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic microstructures as laser mirrors", Opt. Eng., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1143-1148, Apr. 1998.

L. Raffaele, R. M. De La Rue, J. S. Roberts and T. F. Krauss, "Edge-emitting semiconductor microlasers with ultrashort-cavity and dry-etched high-reflectivity photonic microstructure mirrors", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 176-178, Mar. 2001.

L. Raffaele, R. M. De La Rue and T. F. Krauss, "Ultrashort in-plane semiconductor microlasers with high-reflectivity microstructured mirrors", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 34, no. 1-3, pp. 101-111, Jan.-Mar. 2002.

P. Millar, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, J. S. Aitchison, N. G. R. Broderick and D. J. Richardson, "Nonlinear propagation effects in an AlGaAs Bragg grating filter", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 685-687, May 1999.

N. G. R. Broderick, P. Millar, D. J. Richardson, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue and T. F. Krauss, "Spectral features associated with nonlinear pulse compression in Bragg gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 740-742, May 2000.

P. L. Ho and Y. Y. Lu, "A stable bidirectional propagation method based on scattering operators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1316-1318, Dec. 2001.

P. L. Ho and Y. Y. Lu, "A bidirectional beam propagation method for periodic waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 325-327, Mar. 2002.

A. Locatelli, D. Modotto, C. De Angelis, F. M. Pigozzo and A. D. Capobianco, "Nonlinear bidirectional beam propagation method based on scattering operators for periodic microstructured waveguides", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., B, Opt. Phys., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1724-1731, Aug. 2003.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 2000.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 341-348, Mar. 1997.

S. Adachi, "GaAs, AlAs and AlxGa1-xAs: Material parameters for use in research and device applications", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 58, no. 3, pp. R1-R29, Aug. 1985.

T. F. Krauss, Y. P. Song, S. Thoms, C. D. W. Wilkinson and R. M. De La Rue, "Fabrication of 2-D photonic bandgap structures in GaAs/AlGaAs", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 1444-1446, Aug. 1994.

P. Millar, R. Harkins and J. S. Aitchison, "Fabrication of low loss, waveguide grating filters using electron beam lithography", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1031-1032, Jun. 1997.

C. J. M. Smith, S. K. Murad, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue and C. D. W. Wilkinson, "Use of polymethylmethacrylate as an initial pattern transfer layer in fluorine-and chlorine-based reactive-ion etching", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 113-117, Jan. 1999.

R. W. Ziolkowski and J. B. Judkins, "Nonlinear finite-difference time-domain modeling of linear and nonlinear corrugated waveguides", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., B, Opt. Phys., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1565-1575, Sep. 1994.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla and S. Helfert, "Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 150-162, Jan.-Feb. 2000.

R. Jambunathan and J. Singh, "Design studies for distributed Bragg reflectors for short-cavity edge-emitting lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1180-1189, Jul. 1997.

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 33, no. 4-5, pp. 327-341, Apr.-May 2001.

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