Abstract

We study, experimentally and numerically, the increase of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold in dispersion-shifted fibers (DSFs) by applying three different tensile-strain distributions. The best results are obtained with a 40-step stair-ramp distribution, for which we demonstratea 8-dB SBS threshold increase in a 580-m DSF. The Brillouin frequency is observed to shift as a function of the strain at a rate of 0.464 GHz/%. We discuss the potentials and drawbacks of this technique for application in nonlinear devices.

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  1. K. H. Yla-Jarkko, S. Alam and A. B. Grudinin, "Achieving long repeaterless sections in high-density metropolitan WDM networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1013-1015, Jul. 2002.
  2. A. H. H. Tan, "Super PON-a fiber to the home cable network for CATV and POTS/ISDN/VOD as economical as a coaxial cable network", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 213-218, Feb. 1997.
  3. X. P. Mao, G. E. Bodeep, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, T. E. Darcie and R. M. Dorosier, "Brillouin scattering in externally modulated lightwave AM-VSB CATV transmission systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 287-289, Mar. 1992.
  4. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 957-959, Jul. 2003.
  5. T. Torounidis, H. Sunnerud, P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "40-Gb/s transmission using RZ-pulse source based on fiber optical parametric amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1159-1161, Aug. 2003.
  6. M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, M. C. Ho and L. G. Kazovsky, "92% pump depletion in a continuos-wave one-pump fiber-optical parametric amplifier", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 620-622, May 2001.
  7. J. M. Chavez Boggio, P. Dainese, F. Karlsson and H. L. Fragnito, "Broad-band 88% efficient two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1528-1530, Nov. 2003.
  8. F. A. Callegari, J. M. Chavez Boggio and H. L. Fragnito, "Spurious four-wave mixing in two-pump fiber-optical parametric amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 434-436, Feb. 2004.
  9. S. K. Korotky, P. B Hansen, L. Eskildsen and J. J. Veselka, "Efficient phase modulation scheme for suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering", in Tech. Dig. Int. Conf. Integrated Optics Optical Fiber Communications, vol. 2, Hong Kong, 1995,Paper WD2-1,. pp. 110-111.
  10. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fibre by changing the core radius", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 668-669, Apr. 1995.
  11. K. Tsujikawa, K. Nakajima, Y. Miyajima and M. Ohashi, "New SBS suppression fiber with uniform chromatic dispersion to enhance four-wave mixing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1139-1141, Aug. 1998.
  12. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "SBS threshold of fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 50-56, Jan. 1996.
  13. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "Performance of strain-free stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression fiber", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 549-554, Apr. 1996.
  14. Y. Imai and N. Shimada, "Dependence of stimulated Brillouin scattering on temperature distribution in polarization-maintaining fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1335-1337, Nov. 1993.
  15. J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1691-1697, Nov. 2001.
  16. N. Yoshizawa and T. Imai, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by means of applying strain distribution to fiber with cabling", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1518-1522, Oct. 1993.
  17. J. D. Marconi, J. M. Chavez Boggio and H. L. Fragnito, "7.3 dB increase of the SBS threshold in an optical fiber by applying a strain distribution", presented at the Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Paper MF12, 2004.
  18. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1992, pp. 325-349.
  19. A. L. Gaeta and R. W. Boyd, "Stochastic dynamics of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber", Phys. Rev. A, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 3205-3209, Nov. 1991.
  20. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995, pp. 370-403.
  21. V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "Waveguide-induced inhomogeneous spectral broadening of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 2022-2024, Nov. 2002.
  22. M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz and P. A. Robert, "Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842-1851, Oct. 1997.
  23. T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima and M. Tateda, "Tensile strain dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 107-108, May 1989.
  24. J. M. Chavez Boggio, S. Tenenbaum and H. L. Fragnito, "Four wave mixing induced changes in the noise spectrum in an optical fiber", in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. WDD24-1-WDD24-4.
  25. J. M. Chavez Boggio, S. Tenenbaum and H. L. Fragnito, "Amplification of broadband noise pumped by two lasers in optical fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1428-1435, Oct. 2001.

Other (25)

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, S. Alam and A. B. Grudinin, "Achieving long repeaterless sections in high-density metropolitan WDM networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1013-1015, Jul. 2002.

A. H. H. Tan, "Super PON-a fiber to the home cable network for CATV and POTS/ISDN/VOD as economical as a coaxial cable network", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 213-218, Feb. 1997.

X. P. Mao, G. E. Bodeep, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, T. E. Darcie and R. M. Dorosier, "Brillouin scattering in externally modulated lightwave AM-VSB CATV transmission systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 287-289, Mar. 1992.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 957-959, Jul. 2003.

T. Torounidis, H. Sunnerud, P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "40-Gb/s transmission using RZ-pulse source based on fiber optical parametric amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1159-1161, Aug. 2003.

M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, M. C. Ho and L. G. Kazovsky, "92% pump depletion in a continuos-wave one-pump fiber-optical parametric amplifier", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 620-622, May 2001.

J. M. Chavez Boggio, P. Dainese, F. Karlsson and H. L. Fragnito, "Broad-band 88% efficient two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1528-1530, Nov. 2003.

F. A. Callegari, J. M. Chavez Boggio and H. L. Fragnito, "Spurious four-wave mixing in two-pump fiber-optical parametric amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 434-436, Feb. 2004.

S. K. Korotky, P. B Hansen, L. Eskildsen and J. J. Veselka, "Efficient phase modulation scheme for suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering", in Tech. Dig. Int. Conf. Integrated Optics Optical Fiber Communications, vol. 2, Hong Kong, 1995,Paper WD2-1,. pp. 110-111.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fibre by changing the core radius", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 668-669, Apr. 1995.

K. Tsujikawa, K. Nakajima, Y. Miyajima and M. Ohashi, "New SBS suppression fiber with uniform chromatic dispersion to enhance four-wave mixing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1139-1141, Aug. 1998.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "SBS threshold of fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 50-56, Jan. 1996.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "Performance of strain-free stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression fiber", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 549-554, Apr. 1996.

Y. Imai and N. Shimada, "Dependence of stimulated Brillouin scattering on temperature distribution in polarization-maintaining fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1335-1337, Nov. 1993.

J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1691-1697, Nov. 2001.

N. Yoshizawa and T. Imai, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by means of applying strain distribution to fiber with cabling", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1518-1522, Oct. 1993.

J. D. Marconi, J. M. Chavez Boggio and H. L. Fragnito, "7.3 dB increase of the SBS threshold in an optical fiber by applying a strain distribution", presented at the Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Paper MF12, 2004.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1992, pp. 325-349.

A. L. Gaeta and R. W. Boyd, "Stochastic dynamics of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber", Phys. Rev. A, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 3205-3209, Nov. 1991.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995, pp. 370-403.

V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "Waveguide-induced inhomogeneous spectral broadening of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 2022-2024, Nov. 2002.

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz and P. A. Robert, "Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842-1851, Oct. 1997.

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima and M. Tateda, "Tensile strain dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 107-108, May 1989.

J. M. Chavez Boggio, S. Tenenbaum and H. L. Fragnito, "Four wave mixing induced changes in the noise spectrum in an optical fiber", in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. WDD24-1-WDD24-4.

J. M. Chavez Boggio, S. Tenenbaum and H. L. Fragnito, "Amplification of broadband noise pumped by two lasers in optical fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1428-1435, Oct. 2001.

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