Abstract

For short-reach applications, 40-Gb/s directly modulated semiconductor lasers enable high-capacity transmission with a simple and low-cost configuration. We investigated the chirp characteristics of 40-Gb/s directly modulated 1.55-µm distributed-feedback laser diodes (DFB-LDs) and measured the linewidth enhancement factor and dynamic chirp. We then evaluated the fiber-dispersion dependence of the bit error rates (BERs) and dispersion tolerance for 40-Gb/s transmissions.

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  1. ITU-T draft recommendation G. 693, "Optical Interfaces for Intra-Office Systems", Nov. 2001.
  2. B. Wedding, W. Idler, B. Franz, W. Pohlmann and E. Lach, "40 Gbit/s quaternary dispersion supported transmission over 31 km standard singlemode fiber without optical dispersion compensation", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 523-524.
  3. A. Wonfor, J. K. White, E. E. Coulson, R. V. Penty and I. H. White, "Uncooled operation of a 40 Gb/s directly modulated multi-level laser for datacoms applications", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication-Integrated Optics Optical Fibre Communication (ECOC-IOOC), vol. 2, Rimini, Italy, 2003, pp. 324-325.
  4. K. Sato, S. Kuwahara, Y. Miyamoto and N. Shimizu, "40 Gbit/s direct modulation of distributed feedback laser for very-short-reach optical links", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 15, pp. 816-817, Jul. 2002.
  5. B. Wedding, W. Pohlmann, H. Gross and O. Thalau, "43 Gbit/s transmission over 210 km SMF with a directly modulated laser diode", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication-Integrated Optics Optical Fibre Communication (ECOC-IOOC), vol. 1, Rimini, Italy, 2003, pp. 98-99.
  6. K. Sato, S. Kuwahara, A. Hirano, M. Yoneyama and Y. Miyamoto, "4 × 40 Gbit/s dense WDM transmission over 40-km SMF using directly modulated DFB lasers", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), vol. 3, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004, pp. 332-333.
  7. Y. Matsui, H. Murai, S. Arahira, S. Kutsuzawa and Y. Ogawa, "30-GHz bandwidth 1.55-µm strain-compensated InGaAlAs-InGaAsP MQW laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 25-27, Jan. 1997.
  8. O. Kjebon, R. Schatz, S. Lourdudoss, S. Nilsson, B. Stalnacke and L. Backbom, "30 GHz direct modulation bandwidth in detuned loaded InGaAsP DBR lasers at 1.55 µm wavelength", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 488-489, Mar. 1997.
  9. R. A. Linke, "Modulation induced transient chirping in single frequency lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 6, pp. 593-597, Jun. 1985.
  10. J. C. Cartledge and R. C. Srinivasan, "Extraction of DFB laser rate equation parameters for system simulation purposes", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 852-860, May 1997.
  11. K. Czotscher, S. Weisser, A. Leven and J. Rosenzweig, "Intensity modulation and chirp of 1.55-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes: Modeling and experimental verification", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 606-612, May/Jun. 1999.
  12. R. Nagarajan, T. Fukushima, S. C. Corzine and J. E. Bowers, "Effects of carrier transport on high-speed quantum well lasers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 59, no. 15, pp. 1835-1837, Oct. 1991.
  13. D. J. Channin, "Effect of gain saturation on injection laser switching", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 3858-3860, Jun. 1979.
  14. G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993, ch. 6.
  15. N. S. Bergano, "Wavelength discriminator method for measuring dynamic chirp in DFB lasers", Electron. Lett., vol. 24, no. 20, pp. 1296-1297, Sep. 1988.
  16. R. S. Saunders, J. P. King and I. Hardcastle, "Wideband chirp measurement technique for high bit rate sources", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 16, pp. 1336-1338, Aug. 1994.
  17. S. Tammela, H. Ludvigsen, T. Kajava and M. Kaivola, "Time-resolved frequency chirp measurement using a silicon-wafer etalon", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 475-477, Apr. 1997.
  18. G. P. Agrawal, "Intensity dependence of the linewidth enhancement factor and its implications for semiconductor lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 212-214, Aug. 1989.
  19. F. Girardin, G.-H. Duan and P. Gallion, "Linewidth rebroadening due to nonlinear gain and index induced by carrier heating in strained quantum-well lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 334-336, Mar. 1996.
  20. E. Peral and A. Yariv, "Measurement and characterization of laser chirp of multiquantum-well distributed-feedback lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 307-309, Mar. 1999.
  21. T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma and T. Furuta, "Uni-traveling carrier photodiode", in Proc. Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics (UEO), Lake Tahoe, NV, 1997, pp. 166-168.
  22. Y. Miyamoto, K. Hagimoto, F. Ichikawa, M. Yamamoto and T. Kagawa, "10 Gbit/s, 50 km dispersive fibre transmission experiment using strained multiquantum-well DFB laser diode", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 853-854, May 1991.
  23. I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano and R. Vodhanel, "10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulated signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 735-737, Jul. 2001.

Other (23)

ITU-T draft recommendation G. 693, "Optical Interfaces for Intra-Office Systems", Nov. 2001.

B. Wedding, W. Idler, B. Franz, W. Pohlmann and E. Lach, "40 Gbit/s quaternary dispersion supported transmission over 31 km standard singlemode fiber without optical dispersion compensation", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 523-524.

A. Wonfor, J. K. White, E. E. Coulson, R. V. Penty and I. H. White, "Uncooled operation of a 40 Gb/s directly modulated multi-level laser for datacoms applications", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication-Integrated Optics Optical Fibre Communication (ECOC-IOOC), vol. 2, Rimini, Italy, 2003, pp. 324-325.

K. Sato, S. Kuwahara, Y. Miyamoto and N. Shimizu, "40 Gbit/s direct modulation of distributed feedback laser for very-short-reach optical links", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 15, pp. 816-817, Jul. 2002.

B. Wedding, W. Pohlmann, H. Gross and O. Thalau, "43 Gbit/s transmission over 210 km SMF with a directly modulated laser diode", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication-Integrated Optics Optical Fibre Communication (ECOC-IOOC), vol. 1, Rimini, Italy, 2003, pp. 98-99.

K. Sato, S. Kuwahara, A. Hirano, M. Yoneyama and Y. Miyamoto, "4 × 40 Gbit/s dense WDM transmission over 40-km SMF using directly modulated DFB lasers", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), vol. 3, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004, pp. 332-333.

Y. Matsui, H. Murai, S. Arahira, S. Kutsuzawa and Y. Ogawa, "30-GHz bandwidth 1.55-µm strain-compensated InGaAlAs-InGaAsP MQW laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 25-27, Jan. 1997.

O. Kjebon, R. Schatz, S. Lourdudoss, S. Nilsson, B. Stalnacke and L. Backbom, "30 GHz direct modulation bandwidth in detuned loaded InGaAsP DBR lasers at 1.55 µm wavelength", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 488-489, Mar. 1997.

R. A. Linke, "Modulation induced transient chirping in single frequency lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 6, pp. 593-597, Jun. 1985.

J. C. Cartledge and R. C. Srinivasan, "Extraction of DFB laser rate equation parameters for system simulation purposes", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 852-860, May 1997.

K. Czotscher, S. Weisser, A. Leven and J. Rosenzweig, "Intensity modulation and chirp of 1.55-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes: Modeling and experimental verification", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 606-612, May/Jun. 1999.

R. Nagarajan, T. Fukushima, S. C. Corzine and J. E. Bowers, "Effects of carrier transport on high-speed quantum well lasers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 59, no. 15, pp. 1835-1837, Oct. 1991.

D. J. Channin, "Effect of gain saturation on injection laser switching", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 3858-3860, Jun. 1979.

G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993, ch. 6.

N. S. Bergano, "Wavelength discriminator method for measuring dynamic chirp in DFB lasers", Electron. Lett., vol. 24, no. 20, pp. 1296-1297, Sep. 1988.

R. S. Saunders, J. P. King and I. Hardcastle, "Wideband chirp measurement technique for high bit rate sources", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 16, pp. 1336-1338, Aug. 1994.

S. Tammela, H. Ludvigsen, T. Kajava and M. Kaivola, "Time-resolved frequency chirp measurement using a silicon-wafer etalon", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 475-477, Apr. 1997.

G. P. Agrawal, "Intensity dependence of the linewidth enhancement factor and its implications for semiconductor lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 212-214, Aug. 1989.

F. Girardin, G.-H. Duan and P. Gallion, "Linewidth rebroadening due to nonlinear gain and index induced by carrier heating in strained quantum-well lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 334-336, Mar. 1996.

E. Peral and A. Yariv, "Measurement and characterization of laser chirp of multiquantum-well distributed-feedback lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 307-309, Mar. 1999.

T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma and T. Furuta, "Uni-traveling carrier photodiode", in Proc. Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics (UEO), Lake Tahoe, NV, 1997, pp. 166-168.

Y. Miyamoto, K. Hagimoto, F. Ichikawa, M. Yamamoto and T. Kagawa, "10 Gbit/s, 50 km dispersive fibre transmission experiment using strained multiquantum-well DFB laser diode", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 853-854, May 1991.

I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano and R. Vodhanel, "10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulated signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 735-737, Jul. 2001.

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