Abstract

We have developed a modulation phase-shift (MPS) system for measuring relative group delay (RGD) in optical components with high absolute accuracy and simultaneously high temporal and wavelength resolution. Our 200-MHz system has a 3.2-pm wavelength resolution and has demonstrated a group-delay resolution of 0.072 ps for repeated measurements of an artifact based on a hydrogen-cyanide gas cell. The expanded uncertainty (2sigma) is ±0.46 ps for a single spectral measurement (~ 3.4-pm steps) of a narrow 20-ps group-delay feature of the artifact. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the sources of measurement uncertainty for this technique have been described and quantified. A method for predicting the group delay of the gas-cell artifact from measured absorption spectra is described, and an uncertainty analysis for the prediction method is also presented. The implementation required to achieve results of the highest accuracy for both measurements and predictions is discussed.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo and E. Vezzoni, "Phase shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LEDs", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-18, no. 10, pp. 1509-1515, Oct. 1982.
  2. S. E. Mechels, J. B. Schlager and D. L. Franzen, "Accurate measurements of the zero-dispersion wavelength in optical fibers", J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol., vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 333-347, May-Jun. 1997.
  3. "Chromatic Dispersion Measurement of Singlemode Optical Fibers the Phase Shift Method", EIA/TIA Standard Fiber Optic Test Procedure FOTP-169, 1992.
  4. G. Genty, T. Niemi and H. Ludvigsen, "New method to improve the accuracy of group delay measurements using the phase-shift technique", Opt. Commun., vol. 204, no. 1-6, pp. 119-126, Apr. 2002.
  5. R. Fortenberry, W. V. Sorin and P. Hernday, "Improvement of group delay measurement accuracy using a two-frequency modulation phase-shift method", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 736-738, May 2003.
  6. T. Dennis and P. A. Williams, "Relative group delay measurements with 0.3 ps resolution: Toward 40 Gbit/s component metrology", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. 254-256.
  7. A. Motamedi, B. Szafraniec, P. Robrish and D. Baney, "Group delay reference artifact based on molecular gas absorption", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. Th8C-1-Th8C-3.
  8. T. Dennis and P. A. Williams, "Chromatic dispersion measurement error caused by source amplified spontaneous emission", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2532-2534, Nov. 2004.
  9. T. Niemi, M. Uusimaa and H. Ludvigsen, "Limitations of phase-shift method in measuring dense group delay ripple of fiber Bragg gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1334-1336, Dec. 2001.
  10. H. Sasada and K. Yamada, "Calibration lines of HCN in the 1.5-µm region", Appl. Opt., vol. 29, no. 24, pp. 3535-3547, Aug. 1990.
  11. J. R. Reitz, F. J. Milford and R. W. Christy, Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980.
  12. B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, "Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results", Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., Gaithersburg, MD, Tech. Note 1297, Sep. 1994.
  13. G. P. Barwood, P. Gill and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency measurements on optically narrowed Rb-stabilised laser diodes at 780 nm and 795 nm", Appl. Phys. B, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 142-147, Sep. 1991.
  14. T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg and S. L. Gilbert, "Wavelength references for 1300-nm wavelength division multiplexing", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 776-782, May 2002.
  15. T. Dennis and P. A. Williams, "High-accuracy optical group delay measurements and modulator chirp characterization", in Proc. Int. Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics, Ogunquit, ME, 2004, pp. 32-35.
  16. W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510-1540-nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1263-1270, Jul. 2000.
  17. W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1996, pp. 67-82.

Other (17)

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo and E. Vezzoni, "Phase shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LEDs", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-18, no. 10, pp. 1509-1515, Oct. 1982.

S. E. Mechels, J. B. Schlager and D. L. Franzen, "Accurate measurements of the zero-dispersion wavelength in optical fibers", J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol., vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 333-347, May-Jun. 1997.

"Chromatic Dispersion Measurement of Singlemode Optical Fibers the Phase Shift Method", EIA/TIA Standard Fiber Optic Test Procedure FOTP-169, 1992.

G. Genty, T. Niemi and H. Ludvigsen, "New method to improve the accuracy of group delay measurements using the phase-shift technique", Opt. Commun., vol. 204, no. 1-6, pp. 119-126, Apr. 2002.

R. Fortenberry, W. V. Sorin and P. Hernday, "Improvement of group delay measurement accuracy using a two-frequency modulation phase-shift method", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 736-738, May 2003.

T. Dennis and P. A. Williams, "Relative group delay measurements with 0.3 ps resolution: Toward 40 Gbit/s component metrology", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. 254-256.

A. Motamedi, B. Szafraniec, P. Robrish and D. Baney, "Group delay reference artifact based on molecular gas absorption", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. Th8C-1-Th8C-3.

T. Dennis and P. A. Williams, "Chromatic dispersion measurement error caused by source amplified spontaneous emission", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2532-2534, Nov. 2004.

T. Niemi, M. Uusimaa and H. Ludvigsen, "Limitations of phase-shift method in measuring dense group delay ripple of fiber Bragg gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1334-1336, Dec. 2001.

H. Sasada and K. Yamada, "Calibration lines of HCN in the 1.5-µm region", Appl. Opt., vol. 29, no. 24, pp. 3535-3547, Aug. 1990.

J. R. Reitz, F. J. Milford and R. W. Christy, Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980.

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, "Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results", Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., Gaithersburg, MD, Tech. Note 1297, Sep. 1994.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency measurements on optically narrowed Rb-stabilised laser diodes at 780 nm and 795 nm", Appl. Phys. B, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 142-147, Sep. 1991.

T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg and S. L. Gilbert, "Wavelength references for 1300-nm wavelength division multiplexing", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 776-782, May 2002.

T. Dennis and P. A. Williams, "High-accuracy optical group delay measurements and modulator chirp characterization", in Proc. Int. Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics, Ogunquit, ME, 2004, pp. 32-35.

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510-1540-nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1263-1270, Jul. 2000.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1996, pp. 67-82.

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