Abstract

In recent technologies, various optical signal processing systems have been reported. In many of these applications, highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs) are used as key parts. Especially, low loss and low dispersion slope are critical features of the HNLFs. In this paper, their design and characteristics, packaging technology, and applications are introduced.

© 2005 IEEE

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  9. Y. Liu, et al. "Design and fabrication of locally dispersion-flatted large effective area fibers", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), vol. 1, Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 37-38.
  10. K. Nagayama, et al. "Ultra low loss (0.151 dB/km) fiber and its impact on submarine transmission systems", in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. FA10-1-FA10-3.
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  12. M. Onishi, "New nonlinear fibers with application to amplifiers", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper TuC3, 2004.
  13. S. Watanabe, et al. "Interband wavelength conversion of 320 Gb/s (32 × 10 Gb/s) WDM signal using a polarization-insensitive fiber four-wave-mixer", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), PD, Madrid, Spain, 1998, p. 85.
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  33. T. Okuno, et al. "Nonlinear-fiber-based discrete Raman amplifier with sufficiently suppressed degradation of WDM signal quality", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), Stresa, Italy,Paper OtuB5-1, 2001.
  34. A. Oguri, et al. "High power-conversion-efficiency operation of discrete Raman amplifiers using high Raman gain fiber and its bandwidth dependence", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), San Francisco, CA, OtuA6, 2004.
  35. K. Igarashi, et al. "Wideband tunable low-noise 40 GHz RZ picosecond pulse train generation using short comb-like profiled fiber", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Tu3.3.1, 2004.
  36. J. Seoane, et al. "Ultra high-speed demultiplexing using a NOLM based on commercially available highly non-linear fibre", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper We1.5.4, 2004.
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  39. N. Sugimoto, et al. "Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1km-1", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper PDP26, 2004.
  40. P. Petropoulos, et al. "Soliton-self-frequency-shift effects and pulse compression in an anomalously dispersive high nonlinearity lead silicate holey fiber", in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Atlanta, GA, 2003, pp. PD3-1-PD3-3.
  41. K. P. Hansen, et al. "Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero dispersion at 1.55 µm", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. FA9-1-FA9-3.
  42. S. Arai, et al. "Development of optical fiber for broad band FWM", in Optoelectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Tech. Dig., Chiba, Japan, 1996, p. 17P-33.
  43. M. Onishi, et al. "Highly nonlinear dispersion shifted fiber and its application to broadband wavelength converter", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), vol. 2, Edinburgh, U.K., 1997, p. 115.
  44. M. Kakui, "Highly nonlinear fibers and their application to discrete Raman amplifiers", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), Otaru, Japan,Paper MC1, 2003.
  45. A. Oguri, et al. "High power-conversion-efficiency operation of discrete Raman amplifiers using high Raman gain fiber and its bandwidth dependence", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), San Francisco, CA, TuA6, 2004.
  46. Y. Mitsunaga, et al. "Reliability assurance for long-length optical fiber based on proof testing", Electron. Lett., vol. 17, no. 16, pp. 567-568, 1981.

Other (46)

B. Whitman, et al. "Fibre access deployment-Market drivers, politics and technology choices", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Mo3.1.2, 2004.

T. Aoyama, "Development of broadband application based on super-high definition image", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Mo4.1.1, 2004.

M. Suzuki and T. Otani, "High-speed (40-160 Gb/s) WDM transmission in terrestrial networks", in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Atlanta, GA, 2003,Paper FN1,. pp. 741-742.

O. Leclerc, et al. "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2779-2790, Nov. 2003.

S. Watanabe, et al. "160 Gb/s optical 3R-regenerator in a fiber transmission experiment", in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Atlanta, GA, 2003, pp. PD16-P1-PD16-P3.

B. Sartorius and H. P. Nolting, "Techniques and technologies for all-optical processing in communication systems", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Mo.3.5.1, 2004.

K. Ikeda, et al. "A novel quantizing and coding for ultrafast all-optical A/D converter using nonlinear fiber-optic switches", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden, 2004,Mo.3.5.4,. pp. 46-47.

T. Inoue, et al. "Recent issues on nonlinear effects in optical fibers", in Optoelectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Shanghai, China, 2003, p. 37.

Y. Liu, et al. "Design and fabrication of locally dispersion-flatted large effective area fibers", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), vol. 1, Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 37-38.

K. Nagayama, et al. "Ultra low loss (0.151 dB/km) fiber and its impact on submarine transmission systems", in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. FA10-1-FA10-3.

J. Hiroishi, et al. "Dispersion slope controlled HNL-DSF with high g of 25 W-1km-1 and band conversion experiment using this fiber", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark,PD1.5, 2002.

M. Onishi, "New nonlinear fibers with application to amplifiers", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper TuC3, 2004.

S. Watanabe, et al. "Interband wavelength conversion of 320 Gb/s (32 × 10 Gb/s) WDM signal using a polarization-insensitive fiber four-wave-mixer", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), PD, Madrid, Spain, 1998, p. 85.

O. Aso, et al. "Broadband four-wave mixing generation in short optical fibres", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 8, p. 709, Apr. 2000.

O. Aso, et al. "Efficient FWM based broadband wavelength conversion using a short high-nonlinearity fiber", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E83-C, no. 6, pp. 816-823, Jun. 2000.

T. Sakamoto, et al. "Variable optical delay circuit using highly nonlinear fibre parametric wavelength converters", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 2, p. 198, Jan. 2003.

S. Matsushita, et al. "S-band CW lightwave generation using four-wave mixing in high-nonlinearity fiber", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001,We.L.1.1,. pp. 268-269.

T. Morioka, et al. "Error-free 500 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 9, p. 833, Apr. 1996.

M. E. Marhic, et al. "Recent progress with fiber optical parametric amplifiers", presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Yokohama, Japan,15D1-1, 2004.

S. Radic, et al. "Wavelength division multiplexed transmission over standard single mode fiber using polarization intensive signal conjugation in highly nonlinear optical fiber", in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Atlanta, GA, 2003, pp. PD12-P1-PD12-P3.

W. Imajuku, et al. "Inline coherent amplifier with noise figure lower than 3 dB quantum limit", IEE Electron Lett., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 63-64, Jan. 2000.

S. V. Chernikov and J. R. Taylor, "Comblike dispersion-profiled fiber for soliton train generation", Opt. Lett., vol. 19, no. 8, p. 539, Apr. 1994.

K. Igarashi, et al. "Wideband-tunable highly pure 40 GHz picosecond soliton train generation by short comb-like profiled", presented at the Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Francisco, CA, CFC2, 2004.

K. Igarashi, et al. "Ultra-highly pure 160 GHz sub-picosecond soliton train generation with average dispersion-managed comb-like dispersion profiled fiber using highly-nonlinear fiber", presented at the Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Baltimore, MD, CMH7, 2003.

K. Igarashi, et al. "Duration-tunable 100-GHz sub-picosecond soliton train generation through adiabatic Raman amplification in conjunction with soliton reshaping", in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Atlanta, GA, 2003,ThB6,. pp. 155-156.

P. V. Mamyshev, "All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase-modulation effect", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), vol. 1, Madrid, Spain, 1998, p. 475.

P. Brindel, et al. "All-optical signal regenerators for ultra-high bit-rate transmission systems", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E85-C, no. 1, p. 126, Jan. 2002.

G. Raybon, et al. "40 Gb/s pseudo-linear transmission over one million kilometers", in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) PD, Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. FD10-1-FD10-3.

K. Igarashi, et al. "Efficiency of highly nonlinear fiber in soliton converter for 40 Gb/s 10, 000 km fiber transmission", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), Otaru, Japan,MD02, 2003.

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3-16, Jan./Feb. 2001.

Y. Emori, et al. "100 nm bandwidth flat-gain Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by 12-wavelength-channel WDM laser diode", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 16, pp. 1355-1356, Aug. 5, 1999.

R. Sugizaki, et al. "Slope compensating DCF for S-band Raman amplifier", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), Stresa, Italy,OtuB6-1, 2001.

T. Okuno, et al. "Nonlinear-fiber-based discrete Raman amplifier with sufficiently suppressed degradation of WDM signal quality", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), Stresa, Italy,Paper OtuB5-1, 2001.

A. Oguri, et al. "High power-conversion-efficiency operation of discrete Raman amplifiers using high Raman gain fiber and its bandwidth dependence", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), San Francisco, CA, OtuA6, 2004.

K. Igarashi, et al. "Wideband tunable low-noise 40 GHz RZ picosecond pulse train generation using short comb-like profiled fiber", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Tu3.3.1, 2004.

J. Seoane, et al. "Ultra high-speed demultiplexing using a NOLM based on commercially available highly non-linear fibre", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper We1.5.4, 2004.

M. Onishi, "Highly nonlinear optical fibers and their applications", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), vol. 2, Nice, France, 1999, p. 216.

A. Mori, et al. "Ultra-wide-band tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifier", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1300-1306, May 2003.

N. Sugimoto, et al. "Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1km-1", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper PDP26, 2004.

P. Petropoulos, et al. "Soliton-self-frequency-shift effects and pulse compression in an anomalously dispersive high nonlinearity lead silicate holey fiber", in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Atlanta, GA, 2003, pp. PD3-1-PD3-3.

K. P. Hansen, et al. "Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero dispersion at 1.55 µm", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. FA9-1-FA9-3.

S. Arai, et al. "Development of optical fiber for broad band FWM", in Optoelectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Tech. Dig., Chiba, Japan, 1996, p. 17P-33.

M. Onishi, et al. "Highly nonlinear dispersion shifted fiber and its application to broadband wavelength converter", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), vol. 2, Edinburgh, U.K., 1997, p. 115.

M. Kakui, "Highly nonlinear fibers and their application to discrete Raman amplifiers", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), Otaru, Japan,Paper MC1, 2003.

A. Oguri, et al. "High power-conversion-efficiency operation of discrete Raman amplifiers using high Raman gain fiber and its bandwidth dependence", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA), San Francisco, CA, TuA6, 2004.

Y. Mitsunaga, et al. "Reliability assurance for long-length optical fiber based on proof testing", Electron. Lett., vol. 17, no. 16, pp. 567-568, 1981.

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