Abstract

This paper reviews nonlinear optical-fiber designs for signal processing using optical Kerr effects. The requirements for designing nonlinear fibers are described first. Then, the design concept is discussed and design examples are shown to illustrate the tradeoffs among the different fiber properties such as effective area, dispersion, and attenuation. Furthermore, fiber designs with distributed Brillouin frequency shift to mitigate the effect of simulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in nonlinear fibers are discussed in detail. An SBS-threshold increase of 7 dB over conventional nonlinear fibers is experimentally demonstrated.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1989.
  2. T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa and M. Nishimura, "Silica-base functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1385-1391, Sep.-Oct. 1999.
  3. R. Stolen and J. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-18, no. 7, pp. 1062-1072, Jul. 1982.
  4. S. Wen, "Optical phase conjugation of multiwavelength signals in a dispersion-shifted fiber", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1061-1070, Jul. 1997.
  5. M. Sauer, D. Nolan, M. Li and G. Berkey, "Simultaneous multichannel pulse compression for broadband dynamic dispersion compensation", in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), vol. 1, Atlanta, GA, Mar. 23-28 2003, pp. 298-300.
  6. S. Li, M. Sauer, Z. D. Gaeta, D. V. Kuksenkov, S. R. Bickham, G. E. Berkey, M. J. Li and D. A. Nolan, "Broad-band dynamic dispersion compensation in nonlinear fiber-based device", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 29-38, Jan. 2004.
  7. H. A. Haus, "Optical fiber solitons, their properties and uses", Proc. IEEE, vol. 81, no. 7, pp. 970-983, Jul. 1993.
  8. A. Kobyakov, M. Mehendale, M. Vasilyev, S. Tsuda and A. F. Evans, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in Raman-pumped fibers: A theoretical approach", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1635-1642, Aug. 2002.
  9. A. Hirose, Y. Takushima and T. Okoshi, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering and Brillouin crosstalk by frequency-sweeping spread-spectrum scheme", J. Opt. Commun., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 82-85, Dec. 1991.
  10. J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1691-1697, Nov. 2001.
  11. A. Wada, T. Nozawa, D. Tanaka, T. Sakai and R. Yamauchi, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by intentionally induced periodical residual-strain in single-mode optical fibers", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Paper MoB1, 1991.
  12. M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "Design of strain-free-fiber with nonuniform dopant concentration for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1941-1945, Dec. 1993.
  13. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fiber by changing the core diameter", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 668-669, Apr. 1995.
  14. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "SBS threshold of a fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 50-57, Jan. 1996.
  15. E. A. Golovchenko, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov and S. V. Chernikov, "Generation of fundamental solitons at high repetition rate and other applications of fibers with varying dispersion", presented at the Int. Conf. of Quantum Electronics (IQEC), Tokyo, Japan,Paper PD32, Jul. 18-21, 1988.
  16. D. A. Nolan, X. Chen and M. J. Li, "Fibers with low polarization-mode dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1066-1077, Apr. 2004.
  17. D. Q. Chowdhury and D. A. Nolan, "Perturbation model for computing optical fiber birefringence from two-dimensional refractive index profile", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 19, pp. 1973-1975, Oct. 1995.
  18. M. J. Li and D. A. Nolan, "Fiber spin-profile designs for producing fibers with low polarization mode dispersion", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 1659-1661, Nov. 1998.
  19. M. J. Li, X. Chen and D. A. Nolan, "Ultra low PMD fibers by fiber spinning", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper FA1, Mar. 2004.
  20. M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides, Chichester: U.K.: Wiley, 1981.
  21. B. J. Ainslie and C. R. Day, "A review of single-mode fibers with modified dispersion characteristics", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-4, no. 8, pp. 967-979, Aug. 1986.
  22. T. Hasegawa, E. Sasaoka, M. Onishi and M. Nishimura, "Hole-assisted lightguide fiber for large anomalous dispersion and low optical loss", Opt. Express, vol. 9, no. 13, pp. 681-686, Dec. 2001.

Other (22)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1989.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa and M. Nishimura, "Silica-base functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1385-1391, Sep.-Oct. 1999.

R. Stolen and J. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-18, no. 7, pp. 1062-1072, Jul. 1982.

S. Wen, "Optical phase conjugation of multiwavelength signals in a dispersion-shifted fiber", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1061-1070, Jul. 1997.

M. Sauer, D. Nolan, M. Li and G. Berkey, "Simultaneous multichannel pulse compression for broadband dynamic dispersion compensation", in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), vol. 1, Atlanta, GA, Mar. 23-28 2003, pp. 298-300.

S. Li, M. Sauer, Z. D. Gaeta, D. V. Kuksenkov, S. R. Bickham, G. E. Berkey, M. J. Li and D. A. Nolan, "Broad-band dynamic dispersion compensation in nonlinear fiber-based device", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 29-38, Jan. 2004.

H. A. Haus, "Optical fiber solitons, their properties and uses", Proc. IEEE, vol. 81, no. 7, pp. 970-983, Jul. 1993.

A. Kobyakov, M. Mehendale, M. Vasilyev, S. Tsuda and A. F. Evans, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in Raman-pumped fibers: A theoretical approach", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1635-1642, Aug. 2002.

A. Hirose, Y. Takushima and T. Okoshi, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering and Brillouin crosstalk by frequency-sweeping spread-spectrum scheme", J. Opt. Commun., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 82-85, Dec. 1991.

J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1691-1697, Nov. 2001.

A. Wada, T. Nozawa, D. Tanaka, T. Sakai and R. Yamauchi, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by intentionally induced periodical residual-strain in single-mode optical fibers", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Paper MoB1, 1991.

M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "Design of strain-free-fiber with nonuniform dopant concentration for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1941-1945, Dec. 1993.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fiber by changing the core diameter", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 668-669, Apr. 1995.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "SBS threshold of a fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 50-57, Jan. 1996.

E. A. Golovchenko, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov and S. V. Chernikov, "Generation of fundamental solitons at high repetition rate and other applications of fibers with varying dispersion", presented at the Int. Conf. of Quantum Electronics (IQEC), Tokyo, Japan,Paper PD32, Jul. 18-21, 1988.

D. A. Nolan, X. Chen and M. J. Li, "Fibers with low polarization-mode dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1066-1077, Apr. 2004.

D. Q. Chowdhury and D. A. Nolan, "Perturbation model for computing optical fiber birefringence from two-dimensional refractive index profile", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 19, pp. 1973-1975, Oct. 1995.

M. J. Li and D. A. Nolan, "Fiber spin-profile designs for producing fibers with low polarization mode dispersion", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 1659-1661, Nov. 1998.

M. J. Li, X. Chen and D. A. Nolan, "Ultra low PMD fibers by fiber spinning", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper FA1, Mar. 2004.

M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides, Chichester: U.K.: Wiley, 1981.

B. J. Ainslie and C. R. Day, "A review of single-mode fibers with modified dispersion characteristics", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-4, no. 8, pp. 967-979, Aug. 1986.

T. Hasegawa, E. Sasaoka, M. Onishi and M. Nishimura, "Hole-assisted lightguide fiber for large anomalous dispersion and low optical loss", Opt. Express, vol. 9, no. 13, pp. 681-686, Dec. 2001.

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