Abstract

Recent progress on numerical modeling methods for photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) such as the effective index approach, basis-function expansion approach, and numerical approach is described. An index-guiding PCF with an array of air holes surrounding the silica core region has special characteristics compared with conventional single-mode fibers (SMFs). Using a full modal vector model, the fundamental characteristics of PCFs such as cutoff wavelength, confinement loss, modal birefringence, and chromatic dispersion are numerically investigated.

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Other

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 305-330, Jul. 1999.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers: An endless variety", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E84-C, no. 5, pp. 585-592, May 2001.

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers", Nature, vol. 424, no. 6950, pp. 847-851, Aug. 2003.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 19, pp. 1547-1549, Oct. 1996.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessy single-mode photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 961-963, Jul. 1997.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fiber", Science, vol. 282, no. 5393, pp. 1476-1478, Nov. 1998.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air", Science, vol. 285, no. 5433, pp. 1537-1539, Sep. 1999.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell and J. P. de Sandro, "Properties of photonic crystal fiber and the effective index model", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 748-752, Mar. 1998.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvester, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés and M. V. Andrés, "Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 276-278, Mar. 1999.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret and P. Andrés, "Vector description of higher-order modes in photonic crystal fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1333-1340, Jul. 2000.

S. E. Barkou, J. Broeng and A. Bjarklev, "Silica-air photonic crystal fiber design that permits waveguiding by a true photonic bandgap effect", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 46-48, Jan. 1999.

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, T. Sondergaard and A. Bjarklev, "Analysis of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 96-98, Jan. 2000.

D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks and P. S. J. Russell, "Group-velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 1662-1664, Nov. 1998.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick and P. J. Bennett, "Holey optical fibers: An efficient modal model", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1093-1102, Jun. 1999.

D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks and P. S. J. Russell, "Localized function method for modeling defect modes in 2-D photonic crystals", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2078-2081, Nov. 1999.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick and P. J. Bennett, "Modeling large air fraction holey optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 50-56, Jan. 2000.

M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran and L. C. Botten, "Symmetry and degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 488-490, Apr. 2001.

T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten and M. J. Steel, "Confinement losses in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 21, pp. 1660-1662, Nov. 2001.

T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, G. H. Smith and C. M. de Sterke, "Calculations of air-guided modes in photonic crystal fibers using the multipole method", Opt. Express, vol. 9, no. 13, pp. 721-732, Dec. 2001.

T. P. White, B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, G. Renversez, C. M. de Sterke and L. C. Botten, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. I. Formulation", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2322-2330, Oct. 2002.

B. T. Kuhlmey, T. P. White, G. Renversez, D. Maystre, L. C. Botten, C. M. de Sterke and R. C. McPhedran, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. II. Implementation and results", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2331-2340, Oct. 2002.

C. E. Kerbage, B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook and R. S. Windeler, "Experimental and scalar beam propagation analysis of an air-silica microstructure fiber", Opt. Express, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 113-122, Jul. 2000.

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-mode resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1084-1100, Aug. 2000.

F. Fogli, L. Saccomandi and P. Bassi, "Full vectorial BPM modeling of index-guiding photonic crystal fibers and couplers", Opt. Express, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 54-59, Jan. 2002.

Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown, "Full-vectorial finite-difference analysis of microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Express, vol. 10, no. 17, pp. 853-864, Aug. 2002.

G. E. Town and J. T. Lizer, "Tapered holey fibers for spot-size and numerical-aperture conversion", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 14, pp. 1042-1044, Jul. 2001.

J. T. Lizier and G. E. Town, "Splice losses in holey optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 794-796, Aug. 2001.

M. Qiu, "Analysis of guided modes in photonic crystal fibers using the finite-difference time-domain method", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 327-330, Sep. 2001.

N. Guan, S. Habu, K. Takenaga, K. Himeno and A. Wada, "Boundary element method for analysis of holey optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1787-1792, Aug. 2003.

T.-L. Wu and C.-H. Chao, "Photonic crystal fiber analysis through the vector boundary-element method: Effect of elliptical air hole", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 126-128, Jan. 2004.

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux and P. Roy, "Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 181-191, Apr. 2000.

M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh, "Numerical verification of degeneracy in hexagonal photonic crystal fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1313-1315, Dec. 2001.

S. Guenneau, A. Nicholet, F. Zolla and S. Lasquellec, "Modeling of photonic crystal optical fibers with finite elements", IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 1261-1264, Mar. 2002.

M. Koshiba, "Full-vector analysis of photonic crystal fibers using the finite element method", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. 85-C, no. 4, pp. 881-888, Apr. 2002.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 927-933, Jul. 2002.

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti and M. Zoboli, "Perturbation analysis of dispersion properties in photonic crystal fibers through the finite element method", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1433-1442, Aug. 2002.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1291-1293, Sep. 2002.

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