Abstract

We propose novel polarization splitters based on photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), in which the cores of the splitters are nearly nonbirefringent. Different from conventional fiber-based polarization splitters, the birefringence in the new splitters results mainly from narrow silica regions physically connecting the two cores. This means that polarization splitting can be achieved without employing highly birefringent cores, which provides a possibility to greatly simplify the structures of the PCF-based polarization splitters and make them more practical. A 5-mm-long splitter with an extinction ratio of 20 dB has been obtained. We also discuss how the silica regions influence coupling characteristics of the dual-core PCFs and present a design guidance for the polarization splitters based on polarization-dependent coupling.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers: New ways to guide light", Science, vol. 296, no. 5566, pp. 276-277, Apr. 2002.
  2. D. J. Richardson, T. M. Monro, W. Belardi and K. Furusawa, "Holey fibers: New possibilities for guiding and manipulating light", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Workshop Fiber and Optical Passive Components, Glasgow, U.K., 2002, pp. 169-175.
  3. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 961-963, Jul. 1997.
  4. P. S. J. Russell, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight and T. A. Birks, "Nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fiber: Opportunities and challenges", in Proc. IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annu. Meeting, San Diego, CA, 1999,Paper MG4,. pp. 60-61.
  5. A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 924-926, Jun. 2002.
  6. B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph and R. S. Windeler, (2002, Jul.). Ultrashort pulse propagation in air-silica microstructure fiber."Opt. Express", [Online], 10 ( 13), pp. 575-580, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org
  7. K. M. Hilligsoe, H. N. Paulsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding and J. J. Larsen, "Initial steps of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1887-1893, 2003.
  8. J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 807-809, Jul. 2000.
  9. K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson and A. Bjarklev, "Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Post Deadline Paper FA9, 2002.
  10. K. P. Hansen, (2003) Dispersion flattened hybrid-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber."Opt. Express", [Online], 11 ( 13), pp. 1503-1509, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/
  11. Y. Ni, L. Zhang, L. An, J. Peng and C. Fan, "Dual-core photonic crystal fiber for dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1516-1518, Jun. 2004.
  12. M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood Jr., "Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 495-503, Apr. 2001.
  13. K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka and M. Fujita, (2001, Jul.) Optical properties of a low-loss polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber."Opt. Express", [Online], 9 ( 13), pp. 676-680, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/
  14. T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 588-590, Jul. 2001.
  15. B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. J. Russell and A. H. Greenaway, "Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 16, pp. 1358-1359, Aug. 2000.
  16. J. Canning, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen and K. Lyytikainen, "Complex mode coupling within air-silica structured optical fibers and applications", Opt. Commun., vol. 185, no. 4, pp. 321-324, Nov. 2000.
  17. B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek and G.-H. Yang, "Photonic crystal fiber coupler", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 812-814, May 2002.
  18. P. J. Roberts and T. J. Shepherd, "The guidance properties of multi-core photonic crystal fibres", J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 133-140, Oct. 2001.
  19. F. Fogli, L. Saccomandi, P. Bassi, G. Bellanca and S. Trillo, (2002, May). Full vectorial BPM modeling of index-guiding photonic crystal fibers and couplers."Opt. Express", [Online], 10 ( 1), pp. 54-59, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/
  20. K. Saitoh, Y. Sato and M. Koshiba, (2003, Dec.). Coupling characteristics of dual-core photonic crystal fiber couplers."Opt. Express", [Online], 11 ( 24), pp. 3188-3195, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/
  21. L. Zhang and C. Yang, "Polarization-dependent coupling in twin-core photonic crystal fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1367-1373, May 2004.
  22. L. Zhang and C. Yang, (2003, May). Polarization splitter based on photonic crystal fibers."Opt. Express", [Online], 11 ( 9), pp. 1015-1020, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/
  23. L. Zhang and C. Yang, "Nonreciprocal coupling in asymmetric dual-core photonic crystal fibers", Chin. Phys. Lett., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1542-1544, Aug. 2004.
  24. L. Zhang and C. Yang, "A novel polarization splitter based on the photonic crystal fiber with nonidentical dual cores", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1670-1672, Jul. 2004.
  25. M. Chen and R. Yu, "Coupling characteristics of dual-core rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres", J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 805-808, Aug. 2004.
  26. K. Saitoh, Y. Sato and M. Koshiba, (2004, Aug.). Polarization splitter in three-core photonic crystal fibers."Opt. Express", [Online], 12 ( 17), pp. 3940-3946, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/
  27. S. Selleri, L. Rosa, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Ghidoni and A. H. Bouk, "Three-core photonic crystal fiber based polarization beam splitter", presented at the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annu. Meeting, Rio Grande, PR, Paper WV 2, Nov. 7-11, 2004.
  28. G. D. Peng, T. Tjugiarto and P. L. Chu, "Polarization beam splitting using twin-elliptic-core optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 682-683, May 1990.
  29. A. N. Miliou, R. Srivastava and R. V. Ramaswamy, "A 1.3-µm directional coupler polarization splitter by ion exchange", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 220-225, Feb. 1993.
  30. S. C. Xue, R. I. Tanner, G. W. Barton, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large and L. Poladian, "Fabrication of microstructured optical fibers-Part I: Problem formulation and numerical modeling of transient draw process", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 2245-2254, Jul. 2005.
  31. K. L. Reichenbach and C. Xu, (2005, Apr.). The effects of randomly occurring nonuniformities on propagation in photonic crystal fibers."Opt. Express", [Online], 13 ( 8), pp. 2799-2807, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/
  32. K. Lin, W. Chuang and W. Lee, "Proposal and analysis of an ultrashort directional coupler polarization splitter with an NLC coupling layer", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 2547-2553, Nov. 1996.
  33. L. Zhang and C. Yang, (2004, May). Photonic crystal fibers with squeezed hexagonal lattice."Opt. Express", [Online], 12 ( 11), pp. 2371-2376, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/
  34. A. Ankiewicz, A. W. Snyder and X. H. Zheng, "Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores-Critical examination", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-4, no. 9, pp. 1317-1323, Sep. 1986.
  35. M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. Martijn de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran and L. C. Botten, "Symmetry and degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 488-490, Apr. 2001.
  36. J. P. Donnelly, N. L. Demeo Jr. and G. A. Ferrante, "Three-guide optical couplers in GaAs", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-1, no. 2, pp. 417-424, Jun. 1983.
  37. H. Kubo and K. Yasumoto, "Numerical analysis of an optical coupler composed of three-channel waveguides with different core sizes", Microw. Opt. Lett., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 181-184, Apr. 1985.
  38. A. W. Snyder and A. Ankiewicz, "Optical fiber coupler-Optimum solution for unequal cores", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 463-474, Mar. 1988.
  39. R. A. Forber and E. Marom, "Symmetric directional coupler switches", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-38, no. 6, pp. 911-919, Jun. 1986.
  40. K. P. Hansen, A. Petersson, J. R. Folkenberg, M. Albertsen and A. Bjarklev, "Birefringence-induced splitting of the zero-dispersion wavelength in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 14-16, Jan. 2004.
  41. K. S. Chiang, "Intermodal dispersion in two-core optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 997-999, May 1995.
  42. P. Shum and M. Liu, "Effects of intermodal dispersion on two-nonidentical-core coupler with different radii", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1106-1108, Aug. 2002.
  43. L. Zhang and C. Yang, "Polarization splitting in air-silica microstructure fiber", presented at the Frontiers Optics/Laser Science XIX Conf., Tucson, AZ, Paper WX4, Oct. 5-9, 2003.

Other (43)

J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers: New ways to guide light", Science, vol. 296, no. 5566, pp. 276-277, Apr. 2002.

D. J. Richardson, T. M. Monro, W. Belardi and K. Furusawa, "Holey fibers: New possibilities for guiding and manipulating light", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Workshop Fiber and Optical Passive Components, Glasgow, U.K., 2002, pp. 169-175.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 961-963, Jul. 1997.

P. S. J. Russell, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight and T. A. Birks, "Nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fiber: Opportunities and challenges", in Proc. IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annu. Meeting, San Diego, CA, 1999,Paper MG4,. pp. 60-61.

A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 924-926, Jun. 2002.

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph and R. S. Windeler, (2002, Jul.). Ultrashort pulse propagation in air-silica microstructure fiber."Opt. Express", [Online], 10 ( 13), pp. 575-580, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org

K. M. Hilligsoe, H. N. Paulsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding and J. J. Larsen, "Initial steps of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1887-1893, 2003.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 807-809, Jul. 2000.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson and A. Bjarklev, "Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Post Deadline Paper FA9, 2002.

K. P. Hansen, (2003) Dispersion flattened hybrid-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber."Opt. Express", [Online], 11 ( 13), pp. 1503-1509, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/

Y. Ni, L. Zhang, L. An, J. Peng and C. Fan, "Dual-core photonic crystal fiber for dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1516-1518, Jun. 2004.

M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood Jr., "Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 495-503, Apr. 2001.

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka and M. Fujita, (2001, Jul.) Optical properties of a low-loss polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber."Opt. Express", [Online], 9 ( 13), pp. 676-680, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 588-590, Jul. 2001.

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. J. Russell and A. H. Greenaway, "Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 16, pp. 1358-1359, Aug. 2000.

J. Canning, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen and K. Lyytikainen, "Complex mode coupling within air-silica structured optical fibers and applications", Opt. Commun., vol. 185, no. 4, pp. 321-324, Nov. 2000.

B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek and G.-H. Yang, "Photonic crystal fiber coupler", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 812-814, May 2002.

P. J. Roberts and T. J. Shepherd, "The guidance properties of multi-core photonic crystal fibres", J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 133-140, Oct. 2001.

F. Fogli, L. Saccomandi, P. Bassi, G. Bellanca and S. Trillo, (2002, May). Full vectorial BPM modeling of index-guiding photonic crystal fibers and couplers."Opt. Express", [Online], 10 ( 1), pp. 54-59, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/

K. Saitoh, Y. Sato and M. Koshiba, (2003, Dec.). Coupling characteristics of dual-core photonic crystal fiber couplers."Opt. Express", [Online], 11 ( 24), pp. 3188-3195, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/

L. Zhang and C. Yang, "Polarization-dependent coupling in twin-core photonic crystal fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1367-1373, May 2004.

L. Zhang and C. Yang, (2003, May). Polarization splitter based on photonic crystal fibers."Opt. Express", [Online], 11 ( 9), pp. 1015-1020, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/

L. Zhang and C. Yang, "Nonreciprocal coupling in asymmetric dual-core photonic crystal fibers", Chin. Phys. Lett., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1542-1544, Aug. 2004.

L. Zhang and C. Yang, "A novel polarization splitter based on the photonic crystal fiber with nonidentical dual cores", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1670-1672, Jul. 2004.

M. Chen and R. Yu, "Coupling characteristics of dual-core rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres", J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 805-808, Aug. 2004.

K. Saitoh, Y. Sato and M. Koshiba, (2004, Aug.). Polarization splitter in three-core photonic crystal fibers."Opt. Express", [Online], 12 ( 17), pp. 3940-3946, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/

S. Selleri, L. Rosa, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Ghidoni and A. H. Bouk, "Three-core photonic crystal fiber based polarization beam splitter", presented at the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annu. Meeting, Rio Grande, PR, Paper WV 2, Nov. 7-11, 2004.

G. D. Peng, T. Tjugiarto and P. L. Chu, "Polarization beam splitting using twin-elliptic-core optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 682-683, May 1990.

A. N. Miliou, R. Srivastava and R. V. Ramaswamy, "A 1.3-µm directional coupler polarization splitter by ion exchange", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 220-225, Feb. 1993.

S. C. Xue, R. I. Tanner, G. W. Barton, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large and L. Poladian, "Fabrication of microstructured optical fibers-Part I: Problem formulation and numerical modeling of transient draw process", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 2245-2254, Jul. 2005.

K. L. Reichenbach and C. Xu, (2005, Apr.). The effects of randomly occurring nonuniformities on propagation in photonic crystal fibers."Opt. Express", [Online], 13 ( 8), pp. 2799-2807, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/

K. Lin, W. Chuang and W. Lee, "Proposal and analysis of an ultrashort directional coupler polarization splitter with an NLC coupling layer", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 2547-2553, Nov. 1996.

L. Zhang and C. Yang, (2004, May). Photonic crystal fibers with squeezed hexagonal lattice."Opt. Express", [Online], 12 ( 11), pp. 2371-2376, Available: http://www.opticsexpress.org/

A. Ankiewicz, A. W. Snyder and X. H. Zheng, "Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores-Critical examination", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-4, no. 9, pp. 1317-1323, Sep. 1986.

M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. Martijn de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran and L. C. Botten, "Symmetry and degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 488-490, Apr. 2001.

J. P. Donnelly, N. L. Demeo Jr. and G. A. Ferrante, "Three-guide optical couplers in GaAs", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-1, no. 2, pp. 417-424, Jun. 1983.

H. Kubo and K. Yasumoto, "Numerical analysis of an optical coupler composed of three-channel waveguides with different core sizes", Microw. Opt. Lett., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 181-184, Apr. 1985.

A. W. Snyder and A. Ankiewicz, "Optical fiber coupler-Optimum solution for unequal cores", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 463-474, Mar. 1988.

R. A. Forber and E. Marom, "Symmetric directional coupler switches", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-38, no. 6, pp. 911-919, Jun. 1986.

K. P. Hansen, A. Petersson, J. R. Folkenberg, M. Albertsen and A. Bjarklev, "Birefringence-induced splitting of the zero-dispersion wavelength in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 14-16, Jan. 2004.

K. S. Chiang, "Intermodal dispersion in two-core optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 997-999, May 1995.

P. Shum and M. Liu, "Effects of intermodal dispersion on two-nonidentical-core coupler with different radii", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1106-1108, Aug. 2002.

L. Zhang and C. Yang, "Polarization splitting in air-silica microstructure fiber", presented at the Frontiers Optics/Laser Science XIX Conf., Tucson, AZ, Paper WX4, Oct. 5-9, 2003.

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