Abstract

Germania-glass-based core silica glass cladding single-mode fibers (Delta n up to 0.143) with a minimum loss of 20 dB/km at 1.9 µm were fabricated by the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) method. The fibers exhibit strong photorefractivity with the type-IIa-induced refractive-index modulation of 2 × 10-3. The Raman gain of 300 to 59 dB /(km ... W ) was determined at 1.07 to 1.6 µm , respectively, in a 75 mol.% GeO2 core fiber. Only 3 m of such fibers are enough for the creation of a 10-W Raman laser at 1.12 µ m with a 13-W pump at 1.07 µm . Raman generation in optical fiber at a wavelength of 2.2 µm was obtained for the first time.

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  29. I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, V. B. Neustruev, V. M. Mashinsky, A. V. Shubin, M. V. Grekov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, E. M. Dianov and A. M. Prokhorov, "Raman gain properties of optical fibers with a high Ge-doped silica core and standard optical fibers", Laser Phys., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 130-133, 2001.
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  31. I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, Y. V. Larionov, O. I. Medvedkov, S. A. Vasiliev, M. A. Melkoumov, A. A. Rybaltovsky, S. L. Semjonov, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Gur'yanov, V. F. Khopin, F. Durr, H. G. Limberger, R.-P. Salathe and M. Zeller, "High efficiency one-and two-cascaded Raman lasers based on phosphosilicate fibers", Laser Phys., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 234-239, 2003.
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Other (32)

R. D. Maurer and P. C. Schultz, "Germania containing optical waveguide", U.S. Patent 3 884 550, May 20, 1975.

R. Olshansky and G. W. Sherer, "High GeO2 optical waveguides", presented at the 5th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Paper 12.5.1, 1979.

G. G. Devyatykh, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Karpychev, S. M. Mazavin, V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, A. V. Nikolaichik, A. M. Prokhorov, A. I. Ritus, N. I. Sokolov and A. S. Yushin, "Material dispersion and Rayleigh scattering in the glassy germanium dioxide-A substance with promising applications in low-loss optical fiber waveguides", Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 900-902, 1980.

E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky and V. B. Neustruev, "Estimation of ultimate optical losses in glassy germanium dioxide", Soviet Phys.-Lebedev Institute Reports, no. 3, pp. 46-49, 1981.

J. W. Fleming, "Dispersion in GeO2- SiO2 glasses", Appl. Opt., vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 4486-4493, 1984.

V. N. Polukhin, "Role of germanium dioxide in glass manufacturing and its properties in glassy state", Fizika i Khimiya Stekla (Glass Phys. Chem.), vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 338-342, 1982.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen Jr., R. H. Geils and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3 and P2O5", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 34-36, 1978.

A. Boscovich, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, L. Gruner-Nielsen and O. A. Levring, "Direct continuous-wave measurement of n2 in various types of telecommunication fiber at 1.55 µ m", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 1966-1968, 1996.

H. Rawson, Inorganic Glass-Forming Systems, New York: Academic, 1967.

I. Avramov, "Viscosity of glassforming melts", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 238, no. 1-2, pp. 6-10, 1998.

R. Bruning and T. Crowell, "A method to determine the kinetics of a supercooled liquid by temperature scanning measurements applied to (Li, Na)acetate and GeO2", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 248, no. 2-3, pp. 183-193, 1999.

R. W. Dixon, "Photoelestic properties of selected materials and their relevance for application to acoustic light modulators and scanners", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 38, no. 13, pp. 5149-5153, 1967.

O. V. Mazurin, M. V. Streltsina and T. P. Shvaiko-Shvaikovskaya, Handbook on Properties of Glasses and Glass-Forming Melts, Leningrad: Russia: Nauka, 1973.

T. Hosaka, S. Sudo, H. Itoh and K. Okamoto, "Single-mode fibres with extremely high-Delta and small-dimension pure GeO2 core for efficient nonlinear optical applications", Electron. Lett., vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 770-771, Jun. 1988.

H. Takahashi and I. Sugimoto, "A germanium-oxide glass optical fiber prepared by a VAD method", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-2, no. 5, pp. 613-616, Oct. 1984.

S. Sakaguchi and S. Todoroki, "Optical properties of GeO2 glass and optical fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 36, no. 27, pp. 6809-6814, 1997.

H. Takahashi and I. Sugimoto, "Silicone-resine-clad germanium-oxide glass optical fiber", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. L313-L314, 1983.

A. M. Peder-Gothoni and M. Leppihalme, " GeO2 -core/ SiO2 -cladding optical fibers made by MCVD process for stimulated Raman applications", Appl. Phys., vol. B42, no. 1, pp. 45-49, 1987.

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh and P. Mazumder, "On the origin of excess loss in highly GeO2 -doped single-mode MCVD fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1870-1872, Aug. 2004.

M. E. Lines, W. A. Reed, D. J. Di Giovanni and J. R. Hamblin, "Explanation of anomalous loss in high delta singlemode fibres", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 1009-1010, Jun. 1999.

V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin and A. N. Guryanov, "Germania-glass-core silica-glass-cladding MCVD optical fibres", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC)-ICOC, Rimini, Italy,1999.

E. M. Dianov and V. B. Neustruev, "Photoinduced refractive index subgratings in germanosilicate optical fibers", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4083, 2000, pp. 132-143.

L. Dong, W. F. Liu and L. Reekie, "Negative-index gratings formed by a 193-nm excimer laser", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 2032-2034, 1996.

B. Poumellec, V. M. Mashinsky, A. N. Trukhin and P. Guenot, "270 nm absorption and 432 nm luminescence bands in doped silica glasses", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 239, no. 1-3, pp. 84-90, 1998.

E. M. Dianov, D. S. Starodubov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. A. Frolov and O. I. Medvedkov, "Refractive-index gratings written by near-ultraviolet radiation", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 221-223, 1997.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 647-649, 1978.

"Quantum Electronics",

I. A. Bufetov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, A. V. Shubin, O. I. Medvedkov, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin and M. Y. Salgansky, "Three meter long efficient germania-based core fiber Raman laser", presented at the Conf. Laser and Electo-Optics, San Francisco, CA, Paper CMD1, May 16-21, 2004.

I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, V. B. Neustruev, V. M. Mashinsky, A. V. Shubin, M. V. Grekov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, E. M. Dianov and A. M. Prokhorov, "Raman gain properties of optical fibers with a high Ge-doped silica core and standard optical fibers", Laser Phys., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 130-133, 2001.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. E. Rakitin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin and M. Y. Salgansky, "Raman gain properties of germania-based core silica fiber", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, San Francisco, CA, Paper OWC4, Jun. 27-30, 2004.

I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, Y. V. Larionov, O. I. Medvedkov, S. A. Vasiliev, M. A. Melkoumov, A. A. Rybaltovsky, S. L. Semjonov, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Gur'yanov, V. F. Khopin, F. Durr, H. G. Limberger, R.-P. Salathe and M. Zeller, "High efficiency one-and two-cascaded Raman lasers based on phosphosilicate fibers", Laser Phys., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 234-239, 2003.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, O. I. Medvedkov, A. V. Shubin, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Gur'yanov, V. F. Khopin and M. V. Yashkov, "Raman fiber lasers emitting at a wavelength above 2 µm", Quantum Electron., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 695-697, 2004.

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