Abstract

This paper presents an experimental study on the performance comparison of three different schemes of single-pump dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF)-based Raman/erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) hybrid amplifiers together with a DCF-based Raman-only amplifier in terms of static properties, dynamic properties, and system impact: Raman-only amplifier (Type I), Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifiers recycling residual Raman pump in a cascaded EDF located either after (Type II) or prior to (Type III) a DCF, and a Raman-assisted EDFA (Type IV), the concept of which was proposed by Kurosawa <etal> With respect to the overall gain and system impact based on bit error rate (BER) measurements in a transmission system, the hybrid amplifier of Type II was found to have the best performance among the four types while the Raman-only amplifier shows the best tolerance to transient response.

© 2005 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. J. Bromage, "Raman amplifiers for fiber communications systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 79-93, Jan. 2004.
  2. H. H. Lee, J. M. Oh, D. Lee, G. W. Lee and S. T. Hwang, "Performance of 16 × 10 Gb/s WDM transmissions over 4 × 40 km of SMF using linear optical amplifiers combined with Raman-pumped dispersion compensation fibers under dynamic add-drop situations", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1576-1578, Jun. 2004.
  3. Y. Zhu, W. S. Lee, C. R. S. Fludger and A. Hadjifotiou, "All-Raman unrepeated transmission of 1.28 Tbit/s (32 × 40 Gbit/s) over 240 km conventional 80-µm2 NDSF employing bi-directional pumping", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002,Paper ThFF2,. pp. 608-609.
  4. Z. Yusoff, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. Teh and D. J. Richardson, "Raman effects in a highly nonlinear holey fiber: Amplification and modulation", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 424-426, Mar. 2002.
  5. S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K. Suzuki and K. Aida, "Wide-bandwidth and long distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 886-888, Jul. 1999.
  6. K. Shimizu, K. Kinjo, N. Suzuki, K. Ishida, S. Kajiya, K. Motoshima and Y. Kobayashi, "Fiber-effective-area managed fiber lines with distributed Raman amplification in 1.28-Tb/s (32 × 40 Gb/s), 202-km unrepeated transmission", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2001, pp. TuU2-1-TuU2-3.
  7. T. Miyamoto, T. Tsuzaki, T. Okuno, M. Kakui, M. Hirano, M. Onishi, M. Shigematsu and M. Nishimura, "Raman amplification over 100 nm bandwidth with dispersion compensation for conventional single mode fiber", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002,Paper TuJ7,. pp. 66-68.
  8. P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Gruner-Nielsen and A. J. Stentz, "Raman amplification for loss compensation in dispersion compensating fibre modules", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1136-1137, May 1998.
  9. J. W. Nicholson, "Dispersion compensating Raman amplifiers with pump reflectors for increased efficiency", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1758-1762, Aug. 2003.
  10. T. Amano, K. Okamoto, T. Tsuzaki, M. Kakui and M. Shigematsu, "Hybrid dispersion compensating Raman amplifier module employing highly nonlinear fiber", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003,Paper WB3,. pp. 306-307.
  11. J. H. Lee, Y. M. Chang, Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, H. Chung and S. B. Lee, "Dispersion-compensating Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier recycling residual Raman pump for efficiency enhancement", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 43-45, Jan. 2005.
  12. Y. Kurosawa, N. Takeda, T. Kawazawa, H. Taga and K. Goto, "Raman assisted EDF amplifier using 1460 nm pump wavelength for C-band transmission with long repeater span", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Rimini, Italy,Paper Tu3.2.5, Sep. 2003.
  13. M. F. Ferreira, J. F. Rocha and J. L. Pinto, "Impact of stimulated Brillouin scattering on fibre Raman amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 1576-1577, Aug. 1991.
  14. S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu and J.-H. Lee, "Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 16, pp. 865-867, Aug. 2002.
  15. C. R. S. Fludger and R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 536-545, Apr. 2001.
  16. S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, H. S. Chung and M. J. Chu, "Transient effects and gain-control method in low-noise dispersion-compensating hybrid fiber amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 906-908, Jul. 2003.
  17. D. Gurkan, M. I. Hayee and A. E. Willner, "Transient behavior of L-band and C-band EDFAs in an add/drop multiplexed 40-channel WDM network", in Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Baltimore, MD, May 2001,Paper CThH5,. pp. 415-416.
  18. E. Desurvire, C. R. Giles and J. R. Simpson, "Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at lambda = 1.53 µm", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 2095-2104, Dec. 1989.
  19. C. Tian and S. Kinoshita, "Analysis and control of transient dynamics of EDFA pumped by 1480-and 980-nm lasers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1728-1734, Aug. 2003.

Other

J. Bromage, "Raman amplifiers for fiber communications systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 79-93, Jan. 2004.

H. H. Lee, J. M. Oh, D. Lee, G. W. Lee and S. T. Hwang, "Performance of 16 × 10 Gb/s WDM transmissions over 4 × 40 km of SMF using linear optical amplifiers combined with Raman-pumped dispersion compensation fibers under dynamic add-drop situations", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1576-1578, Jun. 2004.

Y. Zhu, W. S. Lee, C. R. S. Fludger and A. Hadjifotiou, "All-Raman unrepeated transmission of 1.28 Tbit/s (32 × 40 Gbit/s) over 240 km conventional 80-µm2 NDSF employing bi-directional pumping", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002,Paper ThFF2,. pp. 608-609.

Z. Yusoff, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. Teh and D. J. Richardson, "Raman effects in a highly nonlinear holey fiber: Amplification and modulation", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 424-426, Mar. 2002.

S. Kawai, H. Masuda, K. Suzuki and K. Aida, "Wide-bandwidth and long distance WDM transmission using highly gain-flattened hybrid amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 886-888, Jul. 1999.

K. Shimizu, K. Kinjo, N. Suzuki, K. Ishida, S. Kajiya, K. Motoshima and Y. Kobayashi, "Fiber-effective-area managed fiber lines with distributed Raman amplification in 1.28-Tb/s (32 × 40 Gb/s), 202-km unrepeated transmission", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2001, pp. TuU2-1-TuU2-3.

T. Miyamoto, T. Tsuzaki, T. Okuno, M. Kakui, M. Hirano, M. Onishi, M. Shigematsu and M. Nishimura, "Raman amplification over 100 nm bandwidth with dispersion compensation for conventional single mode fiber", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002,Paper TuJ7,. pp. 66-68.

P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Gruner-Nielsen and A. J. Stentz, "Raman amplification for loss compensation in dispersion compensating fibre modules", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1136-1137, May 1998.

J. W. Nicholson, "Dispersion compensating Raman amplifiers with pump reflectors for increased efficiency", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1758-1762, Aug. 2003.

T. Amano, K. Okamoto, T. Tsuzaki, M. Kakui and M. Shigematsu, "Hybrid dispersion compensating Raman amplifier module employing highly nonlinear fiber", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003,Paper WB3,. pp. 306-307.

J. H. Lee, Y. M. Chang, Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, H. Chung and S. B. Lee, "Dispersion-compensating Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier recycling residual Raman pump for efficiency enhancement", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 43-45, Jan. 2005.

Y. Kurosawa, N. Takeda, T. Kawazawa, H. Taga and K. Goto, "Raman assisted EDF amplifier using 1460 nm pump wavelength for C-band transmission with long repeater span", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Rimini, Italy,Paper Tu3.2.5, Sep. 2003.

M. F. Ferreira, J. F. Rocha and J. L. Pinto, "Impact of stimulated Brillouin scattering on fibre Raman amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 1576-1577, Aug. 1991.

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu and J.-H. Lee, "Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 16, pp. 865-867, Aug. 2002.

C. R. S. Fludger and R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 536-545, Apr. 2001.

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, H. S. Chung and M. J. Chu, "Transient effects and gain-control method in low-noise dispersion-compensating hybrid fiber amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 906-908, Jul. 2003.

D. Gurkan, M. I. Hayee and A. E. Willner, "Transient behavior of L-band and C-band EDFAs in an add/drop multiplexed 40-channel WDM network", in Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Baltimore, MD, May 2001,Paper CThH5,. pp. 415-416.

E. Desurvire, C. R. Giles and J. R. Simpson, "Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at lambda = 1.53 µm", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 2095-2104, Dec. 1989.

C. Tian and S. Kinoshita, "Analysis and control of transient dynamics of EDFA pumped by 1480-and 980-nm lasers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1728-1734, Aug. 2003.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.