Abstract

In-fiber devices enable a vast array of critical photonic functions ranging from signal conditioning (amplification, dispersion control) to network management (add/drop multiplexers, optical monitoring). These devices have become mainstays of fiber-optic communication systems because they provide the advantages of low loss, polarization insensitivity, high reliability, and compatibility with the transmission line. The majority of fiber devices reported to date are obtained by doping, designing, or writing gratings in the core of a single-mode fiber (SMF). Thus, these devices use the fiber only as a platform for propagating light-the device effect itself is due to some extraneously introduced material or structure (dopants for amplification, gratings for phase matching, etc.) There exists another, relatively less explored degree of freedom afforded by fibers-the ability to copropagate more than one mode. Each mode may have a uniquely defined modal dispersion and propagation characteristic. In this paper, we will describe the variety of fiber devices enabled by few-mode fibers-fibers that typically support two to four modes with suitably tailored dispersive properties. We will show that the unique dispersive properties of various modes, in conjunction with the ability to couple between them with gratings, leads to devices that offer novel solutions for dispersion compensation, spectral shaping, and polarization control, to name a few.

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  2. M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, M. N. Zervas and R. Feced, "Dispersion-free fibre Bragg gratings", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication, Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. MC1-1-MC1-3.
  3. B. J. Eggleton, A. Ahuja, P. S. Westbrook, J. A. Rogers, P. Kuo, T. N. Nielsen and B. Mikkelsen, "Integrated tunable fiber gratings for dispersion management in high-bit rate systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1418-1432, Oct. 2000.
  4. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 58-65, Jan. 1996.
  5. M. J. Holmes and R. Kashyap, "Side-tap fiber grating filters", presented at the Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling Glass, Stuart, FL, SaC1, 1999.
  6. S. H. Yun, B. W. Lee, H. K. Kim and B. Y. Kim, "Dynamic erbium doped fiber amplifier with automatic gain flattening", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication, San Diego, CA, 1999, pp. PD28/1-PD28/3.
  7. H. Lebidi, J.-J. Guerin, V. Girardon, X. Bonnet, C. Simonneau, R. Boucenna, C. D. Barros, N. Dely and I. Riant, "Dynamic gain control of optical amplifier using an all-fibre solution", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper PD1.8, 2002.
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  10. C. D. Poole, J. M. Weisenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber-based dispersion compensation using higher order modes near cutoff", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1746-1758, Oct. 1994.
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  13. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1606-1612, Sep. 1998.
  14. T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, A. Diez and P. S. J. Russell, "Compact all-fiber acoustooptic tunable filters with small bandwidth-length product", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1210-1212, Sep. 2000.
  15. Q. Li, A. A. Au, C.-H. Lin, E. R. Lyons and H. P. Lee, "An efficient all-fiber variable optical attenuator via acoustooptic mode coupling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1563-1565, Nov. 2002.
  16. A. Abramov, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Widely tunable long-period fibre gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 81-82, Jan. 1999.
  17. S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang and M. F. Yan, "Bandwidth control of long-period grating-based mode converters in few-mode fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 698-700, 2002.
  18. S. Ramachandran, M. Yan, L. Cowsar, A. Carra, P. Wisk and R. Huff, "Large bandwidth, highly efficient mode coupling using long-period gratings in dispersion tailored fibers", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication, Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. MC2-1-MC2-3.
  19. S. Ramachandran, M. Yan, E. Monberg, F. Dimarcello, P. Wisk and S. Ghalmi, "Record bandwidth, spectrally flat coupling with microbend gratings in dispersion-tailored fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1561-1563, Nov. 2003.
  20. S. Ramachandran, M. F. Yan, S. Golowich, E. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, J. Fleming, S. Ghalmi and P. Wisk, "A novel fiber design for polarisation insensitive microbend gratings", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Stockholm, Sweden,Paper Th2.3.2, 2004.
  21. C. D. Pool, C. D. Townsend and K. T. Nelson, "Helical-grating two-mode fiber spatial-mode coupler", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 598-604, May 1991.
  22. S. Savin, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino and H. J. Shaw, "Tunable mechanically induced long period fiber gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 710-712, 2000.
  23. M. Wandel, T. Veng, Q. Le and L. Grüner-Nielsen, "Dispersion compensating fibre with a high figure of merit", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001,Paper PD-A.1.4,. pp. 52-53.
  24. K. Oh, H. S. Seo, J. K. Lee and U. C. Paek, "Polarization dependent dispersion characteristics of higher order modes in cylindrical dual mode fiber with an arbitrary index profile", Opt. Commun., vol. 159, no. 1-3, pp. 139-148, 1999.
  25. C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld and D. J. Digiovanni, "Elliptical-core dual-mode fiber dispersion compensator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 194-197, Feb. 1993.
  26. M. Eguchi, M. Koshiba and Y. Tsujji, "Dispersion compensation based on dual-mode optical fiber with inhomogeneous profile core", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2387-2394, Oct. 1996.
  27. S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff and L. Gruner-Nielsen, "All-fiber, grating-based, higher-order-mode dispersion compensator for broadband compensation and 1000-km transmission at 40 Gb/s", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 632-634, Jun. 2001.
  28. A. H. Gnauck, L. D. Garrett, Y. Danziger, U. Levy and M. Tur, "Dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation of NZDSF over the entire C band using higher order mode fibre", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 23, pp. 1946-1947, Nov. 2000.
  29. S. Ghalmi, S. Ramachandran, E. Monberg, Z. Wang, M. F. Yan, F. V. Dimarcello, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk and J. Fleming, "Low loss, all-fiber high-order mode dispersion compensators for lumped or multi-span compensation", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 24, pp. 1507-1508, Nov. 2002.
  30. J. L. Gimlett and N. K. Cheung, "Effects of phase-to-intensity noise conversion by multiple reflections on gigabit-per-second DFB laser transmission systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 6, p. 888, Jun. 1989.
  31. S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, J. Bromage, S. Chandrasekhar and L. L. Buhl, "Evolution and systems impact of coherent distributed multi-path interference", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 238-240, Jan. 2005.
  32. M. Tur, E. Herman, A. Kozhekin and Y. Danziger, "Stimulated brillouin scattering in high-order-mode fibers employed in dispersion management modules", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1282-1284, Sep. 2002.
  33. S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff and L. Gruner-Nielsen, "All-fiber, grating-based, higher-order-mode dispersion compensator for broadband compensation and 1000-km transmission at 40 Gb/s", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Munich, Germany,Paper PD-2.5, 2000.
  34. S. Ramachandran, G. Raybon, B. Mikkelsen, M. F. Yan, L. Cowsar and R.-J. Essiambre, "1700-km transmission at 40-Gb/s with 100-km amplifier-spacing enabled by higher-order-mode dispersion-compensation", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 22, pp. 1352-1354, Oct. 2001.
  35. S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, Z. Wang and M. Yan, "Band-selection filters with concatenated long-period gratings in few-mode fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 1678-1680, 2002.
  36. D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, "All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1590-1592, Nov. 1998.
  37. S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Ryazansky, M. Yan, F. Dimarcello, W. Reed and P. Wisk, "Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 727-729, May 2003.
  38. S. Ramachandran, M. Das, Z. Wang, J. Fleming and M. Yan, "High extinction, broadband polarisers using long-period fiber-gratings in few-mode fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 22, pp. 1327-1328, Oct. 2002.
  39. M. Das, S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, J. Fleming and M. Yan, "Broadband, adjustable polarisation-dependent-loss compensators with long-period fiber-gratings", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 10.4.5, 2002.
  40. S. Kannan, J. Z. Y. Guo and P. J. Lemaire, "Thermal stability analysis of UV-induced fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1478-1483, Aug. 1997.
  41. S. Kannan, L. Copeland, J. Judkins, M. LuValle and P. J. Lemaire, "Reliability of long-period gratings", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication, San Jose, CA, 1998,ThG6,. pp. 282-283.
  42. W. W. Morey and W. L. Glomb, "Incorporated Bragg filter temperature compensated optical wavelength device", U.S. Patent 5 042 898, Aug. 27, 1991.

Other (42)

M. J. Li, "Recent progress in fiber dispersion compensators", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001,Paper ThM.1.1,. pp. 486-489.

M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, M. N. Zervas and R. Feced, "Dispersion-free fibre Bragg gratings", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication, Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. MC1-1-MC1-3.

B. J. Eggleton, A. Ahuja, P. S. Westbrook, J. A. Rogers, P. Kuo, T. N. Nielsen and B. Mikkelsen, "Integrated tunable fiber gratings for dispersion management in high-bit rate systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1418-1432, Oct. 2000.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 58-65, Jan. 1996.

M. J. Holmes and R. Kashyap, "Side-tap fiber grating filters", presented at the Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling Glass, Stuart, FL, SaC1, 1999.

S. H. Yun, B. W. Lee, H. K. Kim and B. Y. Kim, "Dynamic erbium doped fiber amplifier with automatic gain flattening", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication, San Diego, CA, 1999, pp. PD28/1-PD28/3.

H. Lebidi, J.-J. Guerin, V. Girardon, X. Bonnet, C. Simonneau, R. Boucenna, C. D. Barros, N. Dely and I. Riant, "Dynamic gain control of optical amplifier using an all-fibre solution", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper PD1.8, 2002.

L. Gruner-Nielsen and B. Edvold, "Status and future promises for dispersion compensating fibres", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 6.1.1, 2002.

J.-L. Auguste, R. Jindal, J.-M. Blondy, M. Claeau, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostrowsky, B. P. Pal and K. Thyagarajan, "-1800 ps/(nm.km) chromatic dispersion at 1.55 µm in dual concentric core fibre", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 20, pp. 1689-1691, Sep. 2000.

C. D. Poole, J. M. Weisenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber-based dispersion compensation using higher order modes near cutoff", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1746-1758, Oct. 1994.

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1277-1294, Aug. 1997.

X. Shu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 255-266, Feb. 2002.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1606-1612, Sep. 1998.

T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, A. Diez and P. S. J. Russell, "Compact all-fiber acoustooptic tunable filters with small bandwidth-length product", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1210-1212, Sep. 2000.

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C.-H. Lin, E. R. Lyons and H. P. Lee, "An efficient all-fiber variable optical attenuator via acoustooptic mode coupling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1563-1565, Nov. 2002.

A. Abramov, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Widely tunable long-period fibre gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 81-82, Jan. 1999.

S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang and M. F. Yan, "Bandwidth control of long-period grating-based mode converters in few-mode fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 698-700, 2002.

S. Ramachandran, M. Yan, L. Cowsar, A. Carra, P. Wisk and R. Huff, "Large bandwidth, highly efficient mode coupling using long-period gratings in dispersion tailored fibers", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication, Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. MC2-1-MC2-3.

S. Ramachandran, M. Yan, E. Monberg, F. Dimarcello, P. Wisk and S. Ghalmi, "Record bandwidth, spectrally flat coupling with microbend gratings in dispersion-tailored fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1561-1563, Nov. 2003.

S. Ramachandran, M. F. Yan, S. Golowich, E. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, J. Fleming, S. Ghalmi and P. Wisk, "A novel fiber design for polarisation insensitive microbend gratings", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Stockholm, Sweden,Paper Th2.3.2, 2004.

C. D. Pool, C. D. Townsend and K. T. Nelson, "Helical-grating two-mode fiber spatial-mode coupler", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 598-604, May 1991.

S. Savin, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino and H. J. Shaw, "Tunable mechanically induced long period fiber gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 710-712, 2000.

M. Wandel, T. Veng, Q. Le and L. Grüner-Nielsen, "Dispersion compensating fibre with a high figure of merit", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001,Paper PD-A.1.4,. pp. 52-53.

K. Oh, H. S. Seo, J. K. Lee and U. C. Paek, "Polarization dependent dispersion characteristics of higher order modes in cylindrical dual mode fiber with an arbitrary index profile", Opt. Commun., vol. 159, no. 1-3, pp. 139-148, 1999.

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld and D. J. Digiovanni, "Elliptical-core dual-mode fiber dispersion compensator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 194-197, Feb. 1993.

M. Eguchi, M. Koshiba and Y. Tsujji, "Dispersion compensation based on dual-mode optical fiber with inhomogeneous profile core", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2387-2394, Oct. 1996.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff and L. Gruner-Nielsen, "All-fiber, grating-based, higher-order-mode dispersion compensator for broadband compensation and 1000-km transmission at 40 Gb/s", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 632-634, Jun. 2001.

A. H. Gnauck, L. D. Garrett, Y. Danziger, U. Levy and M. Tur, "Dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation of NZDSF over the entire C band using higher order mode fibre", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 23, pp. 1946-1947, Nov. 2000.

S. Ghalmi, S. Ramachandran, E. Monberg, Z. Wang, M. F. Yan, F. V. Dimarcello, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk and J. Fleming, "Low loss, all-fiber high-order mode dispersion compensators for lumped or multi-span compensation", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 24, pp. 1507-1508, Nov. 2002.

J. L. Gimlett and N. K. Cheung, "Effects of phase-to-intensity noise conversion by multiple reflections on gigabit-per-second DFB laser transmission systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 6, p. 888, Jun. 1989.

S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, J. Bromage, S. Chandrasekhar and L. L. Buhl, "Evolution and systems impact of coherent distributed multi-path interference", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 238-240, Jan. 2005.

M. Tur, E. Herman, A. Kozhekin and Y. Danziger, "Stimulated brillouin scattering in high-order-mode fibers employed in dispersion management modules", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1282-1284, Sep. 2002.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff and L. Gruner-Nielsen, "All-fiber, grating-based, higher-order-mode dispersion compensator for broadband compensation and 1000-km transmission at 40 Gb/s", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Munich, Germany,Paper PD-2.5, 2000.

S. Ramachandran, G. Raybon, B. Mikkelsen, M. F. Yan, L. Cowsar and R.-J. Essiambre, "1700-km transmission at 40-Gb/s with 100-km amplifier-spacing enabled by higher-order-mode dispersion-compensation", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 22, pp. 1352-1354, Oct. 2001.

S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, Z. Wang and M. Yan, "Band-selection filters with concatenated long-period gratings in few-mode fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 1678-1680, 2002.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, "All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1590-1592, Nov. 1998.

S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Ryazansky, M. Yan, F. Dimarcello, W. Reed and P. Wisk, "Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 727-729, May 2003.

S. Ramachandran, M. Das, Z. Wang, J. Fleming and M. Yan, "High extinction, broadband polarisers using long-period fiber-gratings in few-mode fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 22, pp. 1327-1328, Oct. 2002.

M. Das, S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, J. Fleming and M. Yan, "Broadband, adjustable polarisation-dependent-loss compensators with long-period fiber-gratings", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 10.4.5, 2002.

S. Kannan, J. Z. Y. Guo and P. J. Lemaire, "Thermal stability analysis of UV-induced fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1478-1483, Aug. 1997.

S. Kannan, L. Copeland, J. Judkins, M. LuValle and P. J. Lemaire, "Reliability of long-period gratings", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication, San Jose, CA, 1998,ThG6,. pp. 282-283.

W. W. Morey and W. L. Glomb, "Incorporated Bragg filter temperature compensated optical wavelength device", U.S. Patent 5 042 898, Aug. 27, 1991.

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