Abstract

Future compact and power-efficient all-optical data routers can benefit from versatile all-optical buffering strategies and switch fabric architectures to achieve high performance. This paper reports two novel variable all-optical-buffer-based optical packet switching (OPS) fabric architectures and corresponding all-optical contention resolution schemes designed towards this goal. The combined input-queued-and-output-queued OPS (CIOQ-OPS) architecture incorporating enhanced K-stage output buffer units achieves lowest packet rates with an optimized input and output buffer capacity partition ratio of 0.5, while the multiple-input-queued OPS (MIQ-OPS) architecture achieves the best performance when each input parallel all-optical buffer contains two variable all-optical buffer queues. Simulation results demonstrate that the newly proposed OPS architectures achieve much lower packet loss rates, packet buffering delay, and jitter for a relatively high traffic load level of 0.7. The performance improvement is typically by one or two orders of magnitude compared to the previously reported OPS architectures with all-optical variable delay buffers with a given reasonable all-optical buffer size of 1000 B.

© 2005 IEEE

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  25. I. Chlamtac, et al. "CORD: Contention resolution by delay lines", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1014-1029, Jun. 1996.
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  27. F. Forghierri, A. Bononi and P. R. Prucnal, "Analysis and comparison of hot-potato and single-buffer deflection routing in very high bit rate optical mesh networks", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 88-98, Jan. 1995.
  28. M. Hlunchyj and M. Karol, "Queueing in high-performance packet switch", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1587-1597, Dec. 1988.
  29. B. K. Ryu and S. B. Lowen, "Point process approaches to the modeling and analysis of self-similar traffic. I. Model construction", in Proc. IEEE Information Communications (INFOCOM), vol. 3, San Francisco, CA, 1996, pp. 1468-1475.
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  32. R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Fundamental limitations of slow-light optical buffers", presented at the IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper JWA32, 2005.
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Other (33)

K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara and T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273 * 40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment", in Proc. IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. PD24-1-PD24-3.

Cisco, "The Cisco Carrier Routing System (CRS-1) Multishelf System", 2004. Available [Online] http://www.cisco.com/application/pdf/en/us/guest/products/ps5763/c1031/cdccont_0900aecd800f8118.pdf

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee and S. Dixit, "Advances in photonic packet switching: An overview", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 84-94, Feb. 2000.

M. K. Smit, "New focusing and dispersive planar component based on an optical phased array", Electron. Lett., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 385-386, 1988.

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles design and applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 236-250, Jun. 1996.

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato and I. Nishi, "Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometre resolution", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 87-88, 1990.

S. J. B. Yoo, Y. Bansal, Z. Pan, J. Cao, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, K. Okamoto and S. Kamei, "Optical-label switching based packet routing system with contention resolution capabilities in wavelength, time and space domains", presented at the IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper W02, 2002.

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Y. Zhang, S. K. H. Fong, V. Hernandez, V. K. Tsui, S. Vaidianathan, K. Okamoto and S. Kamei, "Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1211-1213, Aug. 2002.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo and S. Dixit, "All-optical packet-switched networks: A study of contention-resolution schemes in an irregular mesh network with variable-sized packets," in Optical Networking and Communications (OPTICOMM), Richardson, TX: 2000, pp. 235-246.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu and S. J. B. Yoo, "Experimental demonstration of a multicast-capable optical-label switching router", presented at the IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OTuC8, Mar. 2005.

H. Yang, J. Hu, Z. Pan, F. Xue and S. J. B. Yoo, "An asynchronous, variable length two-stage packet switch fabric architecture with look-ahead and load-balance scheduling schemes for optical-label switching networks", in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Dallas, TX, Nov. 2004, pp. 1828-1834.

W. D. Zhong and R. S. Tucker, "A new wavelength-routed photonic packet buffer combining traveling delay lines with delay-line loops", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1085-1092, Aug. 2001.

Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. J. Lee, M. Jeon, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Okamoto and S. Kamei, "All-optical programmable time-slot-interchanger using optical-label switching with tunable wavelength conversion and N by N arrayed waveguide grating routers", in Proc. IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. 267-268.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, J. Cao, V. Akella, S. Butt and S. J. B. Yoo, "Demonstration of variable-length packet contention resolution and packet forwarding in an optical-label switching router", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1772-1774, Jul. 2004.

F. Xue, Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella and S. J. B. Yoo, "Design and experimental demonstration of a variable length optical packet routing system with unified contention resolution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2570-2581, Nov. 2004.

J. Hu, Z. Pan, Z. Zhu, H. Yang, T. Mohsenin, V. Akella and S. J. B. Yoo, "First experimental demonstration of IP-client-to-IP-client video streaming application over an all-optical label-switching network with edge routers", presented at the IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OFP2, Mar. 2005.

H. Yang, A. Akella, C. Chuah and S. J. B. Yoo, "Scheduling optical packets in wavelength, time and space domains for all-optical packet switching routers", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), Seoul, South Korea,May 2005, pp. 1836-1842.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 88, no. 2, 2002.

P. C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain and S. L. Chuang, "Variable semiconductor all-optical buffers", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 24, pp. 1581-1583, Nov. 2002.

P. C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Kim and S. L. Chuang, "Semiconductor all-optical buffers using quantum dots in resonator structures", in Proc. IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, 2003, pp. 76-78.

H. Yang and S. J. B. Yoo, "A new optical switching fabric architecture incorporating rapidly switchable all-optical variable delay buffer", presented at the IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper ThV2, 2004.

H. Yang and S. J. B. Yoo, "New optical switching fabric architecture incorporating load balanced parallel rapidly switching all-optical variable delay buffer arrays", presented at the IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OME75, 2005.

L. Wosinska, J. Haralson, L. Thyl�n, J. �berg and B. Hessmo, "Benefit of implementing novel optical buffers in an asynchronous photonic packet switch", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper Th2.6.5, 2004.

S. L. Danielsen, P. B. Hansen and K. E. Stubkjear, "Wavelength conversion in optical packet switching", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2095-2108, Dec. 1998.

I. Chlamtac, et al. "CORD: Contention resolution by delay lines", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1014-1029, Jun. 1996.

D. K. Hunter, M. C. Chia and I. Andonovic, "Buffering in optical packet switches", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2081-2094, Dec. 1998.

F. Forghierri, A. Bononi and P. R. Prucnal, "Analysis and comparison of hot-potato and single-buffer deflection routing in very high bit rate optical mesh networks", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 88-98, Jan. 1995.

M. Hlunchyj and M. Karol, "Queueing in high-performance packet switch", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1587-1597, Dec. 1988.

B. K. Ryu and S. B. Lowen, "Point process approaches to the modeling and analysis of self-similar traffic. I. Model construction", in Proc. IEEE Information Communications (INFOCOM), vol. 3, San Francisco, CA, 1996, pp. 1468-1475.

Agilent Technologies, "How Can I Generate Traffic Representative of"Realistic"Internet Traffic Insight", 1st ed., Aug. 2001. Available [Online] http://advanced.comms.agilent.com/insight/2001-08/Questions/traffic_gen.htm

C. Kolias and L. Kleinrock, "Throughput analysis of multiple input-queueing in ATM Switches," in IFIP-IEEE Broadband Communications, L. Mason, and A. Casaca, Eds. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall, 1996, pp. 382-393.

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Fundamental limitations of slow-light optical buffers", presented at the IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper JWA32, 2005.

P. C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain and R. S. Tucker, "Link performance of all-optical buffers using slow light", presented at the IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper JWA33, 2005.

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