Abstract

Recently, there has been a renewed interest in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) due to its potential for offering increased levels of security at ultrahigh data rates as well as for simplifying key networking functions, such as replacing (active) wavelength translation with cascaded passive all-optical code translation (CT). Much of the research done in this area has focused on homogeneous OCDMA networking, where it is assumed that the fiber bandwidth is used only for OCDMA signals. In contrast to other proposed OCDMA systems, we have developed a novel narrowband (NB) spectrally phase-encoded (SPE) OCDMA that is compatible with existing transparent reconfigurable dense-WDM (DWDM) networks and has high spectral efficiency. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of multistage CT in the proposed WDM-compatible SPE OCDMA system, and we also describe how cascaded CTs can play a central role in ring-and star-network architectures. Specifically, we describe a star-network architecture in which both unicast and multicast interconnections among ends are passively"routed"by means of such cascaded CTs, a ring-network architecture in which CT and fast optical switching enable a code-based equivalent to add/drop wavelength multiplexing, and a shared code-scrambling application for increased signal obscurity.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer and A. M. Weiner, "Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 705-707, Mar. 2005.
  2. V. J. Hernandez, Y. Du, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, K. Li, J. P. Heritage, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner and S. J. Yoo, "Spectral phase-encoded time-spreading (SPECTS) optical code-division multiple access for terabit optical access networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2671-2679, Nov. 2004.
  3. P. Ebrahimi, M. Kargar, M. C. Hauer, A. E. Willner, K. Yu and O. Solgaard, "A 10-�;s -tuning MEMS-actuated Gires-Tournois filter for use as a tunable wavelength demultiplexer and a tunable OCDMA encoder/decoder", presented at the IEEE Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, ThQ2, Feb. <day>23-27</day>, 2004.
  4. H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo and K. Kitayama, "Highly spectral-efficient optical code-division multiplexing transmission system", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 250-258, Mar.-Apr. 2004.
  5. C.-S. Bres, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical OCDMA code-drop unit for transparent ring networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1088-1090, May 2005.
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  11. H. Sotobayashi and K. Kitayama, "All-optical code conversion of 10 Gb/s BPSK codes without wavelength-shift by cross-phase modulation for optical code division multiplexing networks", in Proc. IEEE Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Baltimore, MD, 2000, pp. 163-165.
  12. K. Kitayama, N. Wada and H. Sotobayashi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1834-1844, Dec. 2000.
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  18. P. Toliver, J. Young, J. Jackel, T. Banwell, R. Menendez, S. Galli and S. Etemad, "Optical networking compatibility demonstration of O-CDMA based on hyperfine spectral phase coding", in Proc. IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Rio Grande, PR, 2004, pp. 495-496.
  19. S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young and S. Etemad, "DWDM-compatible spectrally phase encoded optical CDMA", in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications (GLOBECOM), Dallas, TX, Nov. 2004, pp. 1888-1894.
  20. S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young and S. Etemad, "Experimental results on the simultaneous transmission of two 2.5 Gbps optical-CDMA channels and a 10 Gbps OOK channel within the same WDM window", in Proc. IEEE Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), vol. 3, Anaheim, CA, Mar. <day>6-11</day> 2005, pp. 29-31.
  21. S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young and S. Etemad, "Novel results on the coexistence of spectrally phase encoded OCDMA and DWDM", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), Seoul, South Korea,May <day>16-20</day> 2005, pp. 1608-1612.
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  23. N. J. A. Sloane. A Library of Hadamard Matrices. Available [Online] http://www.research.att.com/~njas/hadamard/
  24. R. N. Braithwaite, "Using Walsh code selection to reduce the power variance of band-limited forward-link CDMA waveforms", HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, Tech. Rep. HPL-1999-87, Jul. 1999.
  25. J. Sokoloff, P. Pruncal, I. Glesk and M. Kane, "A terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD)", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 787-790, Jul. 1993.
  26. B. J. Wysocki and T. Wysocki, "Modified Walsh-Hadamard sequences for DS-CDMA wireless systems", Int. J. Adapt. Control Signal Process., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 589-602, Oct. 2002.
  27. T. Shake, "Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 655-670, Feb. 2005.

Other (27)

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer and A. M. Weiner, "Four-user 10-Gb/s spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA system operating at ~ 30 fJ/bit", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 705-707, Mar. 2005.

V. J. Hernandez, Y. Du, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, K. Li, J. P. Heritage, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner and S. J. Yoo, "Spectral phase-encoded time-spreading (SPECTS) optical code-division multiple access for terabit optical access networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2671-2679, Nov. 2004.

P. Ebrahimi, M. Kargar, M. C. Hauer, A. E. Willner, K. Yu and O. Solgaard, "A 10-�;s -tuning MEMS-actuated Gires-Tournois filter for use as a tunable wavelength demultiplexer and a tunable OCDMA encoder/decoder", presented at the IEEE Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, ThQ2, Feb. <day>23-27</day>, 2004.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo and K. Kitayama, "Highly spectral-efficient optical code-division multiplexing transmission system", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 250-258, Mar.-Apr. 2004.

C.-S. Bres, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical OCDMA code-drop unit for transparent ring networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1088-1090, May 2005.

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner and J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 478-491, Mar. 1990.

J. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks-Part I. Fundamental principles", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 824-833, Aug. 1989.

J. Salehi and C. A. Brackett, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks-Part II. Systems performance analysis", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 834-842, Aug. 1989.

K. Kitayama, "Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1309-1319, Sep. 1998.

D. D. Sampson, N. Wada, K. Kitayama and W. Chujo, "Demonstration of reconfigurable all-optical code conversion for photonic code-division multiplexing and networking", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 445-447, Mar. 2000.

H. Sotobayashi and K. Kitayama, "All-optical code conversion of 10 Gb/s BPSK codes without wavelength-shift by cross-phase modulation for optical code division multiplexing networks", in Proc. IEEE Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Baltimore, MD, 2000, pp. 163-165.

K. Kitayama, N. Wada and H. Sotobayashi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1834-1844, Dec. 2000.

D. Gurkan, S. Kumar, A. Sahin, A. Willner, K. Parameswaran, M. Fejer, D. Starodubov, J. Bannister, P. Kamath and J. Touch, "All-optical wavelength and time 2-D code converter for dynamically-reconfigurable O-CDMA networks using a PPLN waveguide", in Proc. IEEE Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, 2003, pp. 654-656.

D. S. Seo, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird and A. M. Weiner, "Pulse shaper in a loop: Demonstration of cascadable all-optical code translation for ultrafast O-CDMA networks", in Proc. IEEE Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Francisco, CA, May 2004, p. 2.

S. Shen and A. M. Weiner, "Suppression of WDM interference for error-free detection of ultrashort-pulse CDMA signals in spectrally overlaid hybrid WDM-CDMA operation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 82-84, Jan. 2001.

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer and A. M. Weiner, "Reconfigurable all-optical code translation in spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1979-1990, Jun. 2005.

S. Etemad, T. Banwell, S. Galli, J. Jackel, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, J. Young, P. Delfyett, C. Price and T. Turpin, "Optical-CDMA incorporating phase coding of coherent frequency bins: Concept, simulation, experiment", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper FG5, 2004.

P. Toliver, J. Young, J. Jackel, T. Banwell, R. Menendez, S. Galli and S. Etemad, "Optical networking compatibility demonstration of O-CDMA based on hyperfine spectral phase coding", in Proc. IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Rio Grande, PR, 2004, pp. 495-496.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young and S. Etemad, "DWDM-compatible spectrally phase encoded optical CDMA", in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications (GLOBECOM), Dallas, TX, Nov. 2004, pp. 1888-1894.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young and S. Etemad, "Experimental results on the simultaneous transmission of two 2.5 Gbps optical-CDMA channels and a 10 Gbps OOK channel within the same WDM window", in Proc. IEEE Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), vol. 3, Anaheim, CA, Mar. <day>6-11</day> 2005, pp. 29-31.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young and S. Etemad, "Novel results on the coexistence of spectrally phase encoded OCDMA and DWDM", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), Seoul, South Korea,May <day>16-20</day> 2005, pp. 1608-1612.

A. Agarwal, et al. "Fully programmable ring resonator based integrated photonic circuit for phase coherent applications", presented at the IEEE Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Postdeadline Paper PDP6, Mar. 2005.

N. J. A. Sloane. A Library of Hadamard Matrices. Available [Online] http://www.research.att.com/~njas/hadamard/

R. N. Braithwaite, "Using Walsh code selection to reduce the power variance of band-limited forward-link CDMA waveforms", HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, Tech. Rep. HPL-1999-87, Jul. 1999.

J. Sokoloff, P. Pruncal, I. Glesk and M. Kane, "A terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD)", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 787-790, Jul. 1993.

B. J. Wysocki and T. Wysocki, "Modified Walsh-Hadamard sequences for DS-CDMA wireless systems", Int. J. Adapt. Control Signal Process., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 589-602, Oct. 2002.

T. Shake, "Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 655-670, Feb. 2005.

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