Abstract

For the first time, to the authors' knowledge, distributed parametric amplification (DPA), i.e., the use of a transmission fiber itself for parametric amplification of communication signals is proposed and demonstrated. To account for the inevitable fiber loss, solutions were derived for the distributed amplifier, with either one or two pumps: They are obtained in terms of confluent hypergeometric functions. Low-penalty DPA of a 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signal over a 75-km dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF), is demonstrated by using only 66.5 mW of pump power. Three adjacent channels have been simultaneously transmitted, with little penalty due to nonlinear crosstalk. It is experimentally verified that DPA requires less pump power than distributed Raman amplification (DRA), for similar power penalties.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong, G. Kalogerakis and L. G. Kazovsky, "Toward practical fiber optical parametric amplifiers and oscillators", Optics Photonics News, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 20-25, Sep. 2004.
  2. N. Henmi, Y. Aoki, T. Ogata, T. Saito and S. Nakaya, "A new design arrangement of transmission fiber dispersion for suppressing nonlinear degradation in long-distance optical transmission systems with optical repeater amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1615-1621, Oct. 1993.
  3. G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini and S. Benedetto, "A novel analytical approach to the evaluation of the impact of fiber parametric gain on the bit error rate", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2154-2163, Dec. 2001.
  4. P. Serena, A. Orlandini and A. Bononi, "A parametric gain approach to DPSK performance evaluation in presence of nonlinear phase noise", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper We4.P.124, Sep. 2004.
  5. J. M. Chavez Boggio, S. Tenenbaum and H. L. Fragnito, "Amplification of broadband noise pumped by two lasers in optical fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1428-1435, Oct. 2001.
  6. M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong and L. G. Kazovsky, "Fiber optical parametric amplifiers with linearly-or circularly-polarized waves", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2425-2433, Dec. 2003.
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  10. T. Torounidis, H. Sunnerud, P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "Amplification of WDM signals in fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1061-1063, Aug. 2003.
  11. M. Eiselt, R. M. Jopson and R. H. Stolen, "Nondestructive position-resolved measurement of the zero-dispersion wavelength in an optical fiber", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 135-143, Jan. 1997.
  12. M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, E. Grazioli, A. Pagano, A. Panella, M. Potenza, E. Riccardi and B. Sordo, "Measurement of the dispersion map of installed G.653 fiber links using four-wave mixing", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), San Jose, CA, Paper WM2, 1998.
  13. M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis, K. K.-Y. Wong and L. G. Kazovsky, "Pump-to-signal transfer of low-frequency intensity modulation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1049-1055, Mar. 2005.
  14. M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis and L. G. Kazovsky, "Pump FM to signal IM conversion in fiber OPAs", presented at the OptoElectoronics and Communications Conf./3rd Int. Conf. Optical Internet (OECC/COIN), Yokohama, Japan,Paper 13P-87, Jul. 2004.
  15. A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1289-1291, May 2004.
  16. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek and R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1140-1148, Aug. 2001.
  17. K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka and L. G. Kazovsky, "Polarization-independent one-pump fiber-optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1506-1508, Nov. 2004.

Other (17)

M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong, G. Kalogerakis and L. G. Kazovsky, "Toward practical fiber optical parametric amplifiers and oscillators", Optics Photonics News, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 20-25, Sep. 2004.

N. Henmi, Y. Aoki, T. Ogata, T. Saito and S. Nakaya, "A new design arrangement of transmission fiber dispersion for suppressing nonlinear degradation in long-distance optical transmission systems with optical repeater amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1615-1621, Oct. 1993.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini and S. Benedetto, "A novel analytical approach to the evaluation of the impact of fiber parametric gain on the bit error rate", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2154-2163, Dec. 2001.

P. Serena, A. Orlandini and A. Bononi, "A parametric gain approach to DPSK performance evaluation in presence of nonlinear phase noise", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper We4.P.124, Sep. 2004.

J. M. Chavez Boggio, S. Tenenbaum and H. L. Fragnito, "Amplification of broadband noise pumped by two lasers in optical fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1428-1435, Oct. 2001.

M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong and L. G. Kazovsky, "Fiber optical parametric amplifiers with linearly-or circularly-polarized waves", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2425-2433, Dec. 2003.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, New York: Dover, 1972.

M. E. Marhic, Y. Park, F. S. Yang and L. G. Kazovsky, "Broadband fiber optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters with low-ripple Chebyshev gain spectra", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 17, pp. 1354-1356, Sep. 1996.

K. K. Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka and L. G. Kazovsky, "Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 911-913, Jul. 2002.

T. Torounidis, H. Sunnerud, P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "Amplification of WDM signals in fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1061-1063, Aug. 2003.

M. Eiselt, R. M. Jopson and R. H. Stolen, "Nondestructive position-resolved measurement of the zero-dispersion wavelength in an optical fiber", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 135-143, Jan. 1997.

M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, E. Grazioli, A. Pagano, A. Panella, M. Potenza, E. Riccardi and B. Sordo, "Measurement of the dispersion map of installed G.653 fiber links using four-wave mixing", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), San Jose, CA, Paper WM2, 1998.

M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis, K. K.-Y. Wong and L. G. Kazovsky, "Pump-to-signal transfer of low-frequency intensity modulation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1049-1055, Mar. 2005.

M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis and L. G. Kazovsky, "Pump FM to signal IM conversion in fiber OPAs", presented at the OptoElectoronics and Communications Conf./3rd Int. Conf. Optical Internet (OECC/COIN), Yokohama, Japan,Paper 13P-87, Jul. 2004.

A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1289-1291, May 2004.

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek and R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1140-1148, Aug. 2001.

K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka and L. G. Kazovsky, "Polarization-independent one-pump fiber-optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1506-1508, Nov. 2004.

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