Abstract

This paper presents the results of the optical packet switched network (OPSnet) project, which investigated the design of an asynchronous optical packet switch suitable for the core of an optical transport network (OTN). The requirements for the switch were to control and route variable-length packets transmitted at bit rates beyond 100 Gbit/s. The subsystems and techniques used are analyzed and presented. Fast header encoding and passive decoding is based on the differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) method. The dual-pump four-wave mixing (d-p FWM) wavelength-conversion technique, in combination with an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), is utilized for packet switching. An advanced and fully controllable mechanism for the packet-switch control is presented, which is implemented on field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. The control wavelength is generated using a tunable laser, the actual wavelength and new header values are provided utilizing fast header recognition and look-up tables. The integration of the subsystems is discussed, and the results of a four-output port asynchronous packet-switch demonstrator operating at 40 Gbit/s are presented. Finally, the switch limitations are examined and design issues are discussed.

© 2005 IEEE

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  28. J. Zhang, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret and P. Jeppesen, "Method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, MF76, Mar. 2004.
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  37. T. J. Morgan, R. S. Tucker and J. P. R. Lacey, "All-optical wavelength translation over 80 nm at 2.5 Gb/s using four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 982-984, Aug. 1999.
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  40. G. Contestabile, A. D'Ottavi, E. Martelli, A. Mecozzi and P. Spano, "Polarization-and interval-independent wavelength conversion at 2.5 Gb/s by means of bidirectional four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 852-854, Jul. 2000.
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Other (43)

M. J. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. K. Hunter and A. Tzanakaki, "The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 128-135, Mar. 2001.

A. M. Odlyzko, B. B. Dingel, W. Weiershausen, A. K. Dutta and K.-I. Sato, "Internet traffic growth: Sources and implications, optical transmission systems and equipment for WDM networking", Proc. SPIE, vol. 5247, pp. 1-15, 2003.

J.-P. Laude, DWDM Fundamentals, Components and Applications, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 2002.

S. S. Dixit, IP Over DWM: Building the Next Generation Optical Internet, New York: Wiley-Interscience, 2003.

E. Modiano, "WDM-based packet networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 130-135, Mar. 1999.

K. Sato, N. Yamanaka, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, S. Okamoto, K. Shiomoto, E. Oki and W. Imajuku, "GMPLS-based photonic multilayer router (Hikari router) architecture: An overview of traffic engineering and signaling technology", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 96-101, Mar. 2002.

P. Tomsu and G. Wieser, MPLS-Based VPNs Designing Advanced Virtual Networks, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2002.

D. Klonidis, R. Nejabati, C. T. Politi, M. J. O'Mahony and D. Simeonidou, "Demonstration of a fully functional and controlled optical packet switch at 40 Gb/s", presented at the Proc. 30th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Stockholm, Sweden,PD Th4.4.5, Sep. 2004.

C.-L. Lu, D. Jay, M. Sabido, P. Poggiolini, R. T. Hofmeister and L. G. Kazovski, "CORD-A WDMA optical network: Subcarrier based signalling and control scheme", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 555-557, May 1995.

A. Carena, M. D. Vaughn, R. Gaudino, M. Shell and D. J. Blumenthal, "OPERA: An optical packet experimental routing architecture with label swapping capability", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2135-2145, Dec. 1998.

D.-R. Wonglumsom, I. M. White, K. Khrikhande, M. S. Rogge, S. M. Gemelos, F.-T. An, Y. Fukashiro, M. Avenarius and L. G. Kazovsky, "Experimental demonstration of an access point for HORNET-A packet over WDM multiple access MAN", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1709-1717, Dec. 2000.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Kr�henb�hl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau and L. Zucchelli, "Transparent optical packet switch: Network architectures and demonstrators in the KEOPS project", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245-1259, Sep. 1998.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O'Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. S. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty and I. H. White, "WASPNET: A wavelength switched packet network", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120-129, Mar. 1999.

A. Stavdas, S. Sygletos, M. J. O'Mahony, H. L. Lee, C. Matrakidis and A. Dupas, "IST-DAVID concept presentation and physical layer modelling of MAN", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 372-383, Feb. 2003.

K. G. Vlachos, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, C. Peucheret and P. Jeppesen, "STOLAS: Switching technologies for optically labeled signals", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 11, pp. S9-S15, Nov. 2003.

F. Xue, Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella and S. J. B. Yoo, "Design and experimental demonstration of a variable-length optical packet routing system with unified contention resolution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2570-2581, Nov. 2004.

N. Wanda, W. Chujo and K. Kitayama, "1.28 Tb/s (160 Gbit/s � 8 wavelengths) throughput variable length packet switching using optical code based label switch", in Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, vol. 6, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Sep. 2001, pp. 62-63.

W. Wang, L. Rau and D. J. Blumenthal, "All-optical label switching/swapping of 160 Gb/s variable length packets and 10 Gb/s labels using WDM Raman enhanced-XPM fibre wavelength converter with unicast/multicast operation", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication, Los Angeles, CA, PDP8, Mar. 2004.

D. J. Blumenthal, B.-E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren and J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2058-2075, Dec. 2000.

P. Zhong, Y. Haijun, Z. Zuqing, C. Jing, V. Akella, S. Butt and S. J. B. Yoo, "Demonstration of variable-length packet contention resolution and packet forwarding in an optical-label switching router", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1772-1774, Jul. 2004.

P. Ohlen, B.-E. Olsson and D. J. Blumenthal, "All-optical header erasure and penalty free rewriting in a fibre based high speed wavelength converter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 663-665, Jun. 2000.

K.-I. Kitayama and N. Wada, "Photonic IP routing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1689-1691, Dec. 1999.

N. Chi, L. Xu, L. Christiansen, K. Yvind, J. Zhang, P. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, C. Zhang and P. Jeppesen, "Optical label swapping and packet transmission based on ASK/DPSK orthogonal modulation format in IP-over-WDM networks", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003,FS2,. pp. 792-794.

X. Liu, Y. Su, X. Wei, J. Leuthold and R. C. Giles, "Optical-label switching based on DPSK/ASK modulation format with balanced detection for DPSK payload", in Proc. 29th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Rimini, Italy,Sep. 2003,Tu4.4.3,. pp. 306-307.

N. Chi, B. Kozicki, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret and P. Jeppesen, "Transmission properties of an all-optical labelled signal using orthogonal IM/FSK modulation format", in Proc. 29th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Rimini, Italy,Sep. 2003,Tu4.4.1,. pp. 300-303.

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen and F. Tong, "A novel phase encoding scheme for optical packet label processing", presented at the 29th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Rimini, Italy,Tu4.4.4, Sep. 2003.

T. Koonen, G. Morthier, J. Jennen, H. de Waardt and P. Demeester, "Optical packet routing in IP-over-WDM networks deploying two-level optical labeling", in Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, vol. 4, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Sep. 2001, pp. 608-609.

J. Zhang, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret and P. Jeppesen, "Method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, MF76, Mar. 2004.

D. Klonidis, C. T. Politi, R. Nejabati, M. J. O'Mahony and D. Simeonidou, "Header extraction and control for an asynchronous optical packet switch based on DPSK decoding", IEICE Trans. Recent Progress Optoelectronics Communication, vol. E88-5, no. 5, pp. 1876-1883, May 2005.

J. Van Campenhout, H. Van Marck, J. Depreitere and J. Dambre, "Optoelectronic FPGAs", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 306-315, Mar.-Apr. 2003.

L. Wu, H. J. Chao, X. J. Zhao, Y. Zhao, Y. Chai, J. P. Zhang and F. S. Choa, "An FPGA controlled WDM buffer memory", in Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Francisco, CA, May 2000, pp. 340-341.

S. J. B. Yoo, Y. Bansal, Z. Pan, J. Cao, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, Y. Zhang, J. Taylor, H. Jae, L. M. Jeon and V. Akella, "Optical label based packet routing system with contention resolution in wavelength time and space domains", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002, pp. 280-282.

T. Lin, W. Tang, K. Williams, G. Roberts, L. James, R. Penty, I. White, M. Glick and D. McAuley, "80 Gb/s optical packet routing for data networking using FPGA based 100 Mb/s control scheme", presented at the 30th Eur. Conf. Optical Communications, Stockholm, Sweden,Th6.6.6, Sep. 2004.

R. Nejabati, D. Klonidis, D. Simeonidou and M. J. O'Mahony, "Demonstration of user-controlled network interface for sub-wavelength bandwidth-on-demand services", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2005, pp. 240-242.

R. Nejabati and M. Fleury, "Co-design and prototyping of an ATM packet processor", in IEEE Postgraduate Conf. SoC Design, Test and Technology, vol. 1, Cardiff, U.K., 2003, pp. 10-12.

O. Kamatani and S. Kawanishi, "Prescaled timing extraction from 400 Gb/s optical signal using a phase lock loop based on four-wave-mixing in a laser diode amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1094-1096, Aug. 1996.

T. J. Morgan, R. S. Tucker and J. P. R. Lacey, "All-optical wavelength translation over 80 nm at 2.5 Gb/s using four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 982-984, Aug. 1999.

A. Mecozzi, "Applications of four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers", in Proc. 24th Eur. Conf. Optical Communications, Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 647-648.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov and K. Petermann, "Four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers for frequency conversion and fast optical switching", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 1131-1145, Oct. 1997.

G. Contestabile, A. D'Ottavi, E. Martelli, A. Mecozzi and P. Spano, "Polarization-and interval-independent wavelength conversion at 2.5 Gb/s by means of bidirectional four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 852-854, Jul. 2000.

Analogue Devices Inc.. ADCMP58x, Ultrafast SiGe Voltage Comparator. 2004. Available [Online] www.analogue.com

T. Akiyama, H. Kuwatsuka, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe and M. Sugawara, "Symmetric highly efficient (~ 0 dBm) wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in quantum dot optical amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1139-1141, Aug. 2002.

C. Politi and M. J. O'Mahony, "Optical packet header extraction and band conversion in a high-speed multi-lambda network", in Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Long Beach, CA, 2002, pp. 539-540.

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