Abstract

This paper presents a high-resolution (13.2 GHz) channel-blocking optical filter, suitable for use as a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), which seamlessly supports data rates from 2.5 to 160 Gb/s. The filter consists of a linear array of 64 MEMS micromirrors and a high-dispersion echelle grating. The demonstrated device had an insertion loss of 9 dB, a loss ripple of 1.2 dB, and a group delay ripple of 15 ps. Data transmission through the device with various mixed data rate scenarios ranging from 2.5 to 160 Gb/s showed negligible penalty, except at 40 Gb/s where a maximum penalty of 1.5 dB was observed due to a phase coherence with the blocker filter ripple.

© 2005 IEEE

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  2. J. Ford, "Micromechanical wavelength add/drop switching: from device to network architecture", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Exhibit, 2003.
  3. D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, N. R. Basavanhally, P. R. Kolodner, Y. L. Low, C. A. Bolle, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Buhl, S.-H. Oh, C. S. Pai, K. Werder, H. T. Soh, G. R. Bogart, E. Ferry, F. P. Klemens, K. Teffeau, J. F. Miner, S. Rogers, J. E. Bower, R. C. Keller and W. Mansfield, "Wavelength selective 1 x 4 switch for 128 WDM channels at 50 GHz spacing", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Exhibit, 2002, pp. 857-859.
  4. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Paunsecu, E. Laskowski, S. Chandrasekhar and L. Buhl, "2 x 2 wavelength-selective cross connect capable of switching 128 channels in sets of eight", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 387-389, Mar. 2002.
  5. T. Ducellier, J. Bismuth, S. F. Roux, A. Gillet, C. Merchant, M. Miller, M. Mala, Y. Ma, L. Tay, J. Sibille, M. Alavanja, A. Deren, M. Cugalj, D. Ivancevic, V. Dhuler, E. Hill, A. Cowen, B. Shen and R. Wood, "The MWS 1 x 4: a high performance wavelength switching building block", in Europ. Conf. Optical Communication, vol. 1, Copenhagen, Denmark,Sept. <day>8-12</day> 2002,Paper: 2.3.1.
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  7. J. K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf and M. Dugan, "Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch", in Proc. 27th Europ. Conf. Optical Communication , vol. 4, 2001, pp. 550-551.
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  9. M. Vasilyev, I. Tomkos, J. Rhee, M. Mehendale, B. Hallock, B. Szalabofka, M. Willams, S. Tsuda and M. Sharma, "Broadcast and select OADM in 80 x 10.7 Gb/s ultra-longhaul network", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 332-334, Feb. 2003.
  10. M. Vasilyev, I. Tomkos, M. Mehendale, J.-K. Rhee, A. Kobyakov, M. Ajgaonkar, S. Tsuda and M. Sharma, "Transparent ultra-long-haul DWDM networks with"broadcast-and-select"OADM/OXC architecture", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, pp. 2661-2672, Nov. 2003.
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  12. D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, H. Tang, L. Ko, N. R. Basavanhally, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, J. D. Weld, Y. L. Low, J. Prybyla, R. Scotti, A. Gasparyan, M. Haueis, S. Arney, S. P. O'Neill, C.-S. Pai, D. H. Malkani, M. M. Meyers, N. Saluzzi, S. H. Oh, O. D. Lopez, G. R. Bogart, F. P. Klemens, M. Luo, J. Q. Liu, K. Teffeau, A. Ramirez, K. S. Werder, J. E. Griffith, C. Frye, M. V. Kunnavakkam, S. T. Stanton, J. A. Liddle, H. T. Soh, T-C. Lee, O. Nalamasu and K. C. Nguyen, "High-dynamic range channelized MEMS equalizing filter", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Exhibit 2002 , 2002, pp. 586-588.
  13. D. T. Neilson, H. Tang, D. S. Greywall, N. R. Basavanhally, L. Ko, D. A. Ramsey, J. D. Weld, Y. L. Low, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, P. Busch, J. Prybyla, M. Haueis, C. S. Pai, R. Scotti and R. Ryf, "Channel equalization and blocking filter utilizing micro electro mechanical mirrors", IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. , vol. 10, pp. 563-569, 2004.
  14. T. Zhou, D. O. López, M. E. Simon, F. Pardo, V. A. Aksyuk and D. T. Neilson, "MEMS-based 14 GHz resolution dynamic optical filter", Inst. Elect. Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 24, pp. 1744-1745, 2003.
  15. D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, R. Ryf and H. Shea, "Effect of mirror curvature in MEMS micro-mirror based wavelength-selective switches", in LEOS 2003 16th Ann. Meet., Tucson, AZ,Paper TuO4.
  16. X. Liu, L. F. Mollenauer and X. Wei, "Impact of group-delay ripple in transmission systems including phase-modulated formats", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 305-307, Jan. 2004.
  17. F. Pardo, V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, H. Bair, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, G. R. Bogart, C. A. Bolle, J. E. Bower, D. Carr, H. B. Chan, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, C. R. Giles, L. Gomez, S. Goyal, D. S. Greywall, M. Haueis, R. C. Kellera, J. Kim, F. P. Klemens, P. Kolodner, A. Kornblit, T. Kroupenkine, W. Lai, V. Lifton, J. Q. Liu, Y. Low, W. Mansfield, D. Marom, J. F. Miner, D. T. Neilson, M. Paczkowski, C.-S. Pai, A. Ramirez, D. Ramsey, S. Rogers, R. Ryf, R. Scotti, H. Shea, M. E. Simon, H. T. Soh, H. Tang, J. A. Taylor, K. Teffeau, J. Vuillemin and J. Weld, "Optical MEMS devices for telecom systems", in SPIE's First Int. Symp. Microtechnologies for the New Millennium 2003: Smart Sensors, Actuators and MEMS [5116-59], May 2003.
  18. D. Lopez, M. E. Simon, F. Pardo, V. Aksyuk, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, D. T. Neilson, H. Shea, T. Sorsch, E. Ferry, O. Nalamasu and P. L. Gammel, "Monolithic MEMS optical switch with amplified out-of-plane angular motion", in MOEMS 2002 Int. Conf. Optical MEMs, Lugano, Switzerland,Aug. 2002, Paper ThB5.
  19. D. Lopez, F. Pardo, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, H. R. Shea, D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, R. Cirelli, F. Klemensa, W. Mansfield, L. Fettera, E. Bower, J. Miner and T. Sorsch, "MEMS mirror array for a wavelength selective 1x K switch", in SPIE's First Int. Symp. Microtechnologies for the New Millennium 2003: Smart Sensors, Actuators and MEMS [5116-59], May 2003.
  20. D. S. Greywall, P. Chien-Shing, O. Sang-Hyun, C. Chorng-Ping, D. M. Marom, P. A. Busch, R. A. Cirelli, J. A. Taylor, F. P. Klemens, T. W. Sorsch, J. E. Bower, W. Y.-C. Lai and H. T. Soh, "Monolithic fringe-field-activated crystalline silicon tilting-mirror devices", J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 702-707, Oct. 2003.
  21. D. M. Marom and S. Oh, "Filter-shape dependence on attenuation mechanism in channelized dynamic spectral equalizers", in 15th Ann. Meet. Lasers and Electro-Optics Soc., vol. 2, Nov. <day>13-14</day> 2002, pp. 416-417.
  22. L. M�ller, Y. Su, X. Liu, J. Leuthold and C. Xie, "Ultrahigh-speed optical phase correlated data signals", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1597-1599, Nov. 2003.
  23. D. Penninckx and O. Audouin, "Optically preamplified systems: defining a new eye aperture", in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Exhibit 1998, 1998, Paper WM36.

Other (23)

J. E. Ford, V. A. Aksyuk, D. J. Bishop and J. A. Walker, "Wavelength add-drop switching using tilting micro-mirrors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, pp. 904-911, May 1999.

J. Ford, "Micromechanical wavelength add/drop switching: from device to network architecture", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Exhibit, 2003.

D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, N. R. Basavanhally, P. R. Kolodner, Y. L. Low, C. A. Bolle, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Buhl, S.-H. Oh, C. S. Pai, K. Werder, H. T. Soh, G. R. Bogart, E. Ferry, F. P. Klemens, K. Teffeau, J. F. Miner, S. Rogers, J. E. Bower, R. C. Keller and W. Mansfield, "Wavelength selective 1 x 4 switch for 128 WDM channels at 50 GHz spacing", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Exhibit, 2002, pp. 857-859.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Paunsecu, E. Laskowski, S. Chandrasekhar and L. Buhl, "2 x 2 wavelength-selective cross connect capable of switching 128 channels in sets of eight", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 387-389, Mar. 2002.

T. Ducellier, J. Bismuth, S. F. Roux, A. Gillet, C. Merchant, M. Miller, M. Mala, Y. Ma, L. Tay, J. Sibille, M. Alavanja, A. Deren, M. Cugalj, D. Ivancevic, V. Dhuler, E. Hill, A. Cowen, B. Shen and R. Wood, "The MWS 1 x 4: a high performance wavelength switching building block", in Europ. Conf. Optical Communication, vol. 1, Copenhagen, Denmark,Sept. <day>8-12</day> 2002,Paper: 2.3.1.

M. C. Wu, J. C. Tsai, S. Huang and H. Dooyoung, "MEMS WDM routers using analog micro-mirror arrays", in Proc. 15th Ann. Meet. IEEE LEOS, vol. 2, Nov. <day>10-14</day> 2002, pp. 582-583.

J. K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf and M. Dugan, "Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch", in Proc. 27th Europ. Conf. Optical Communication , vol. 4, 2001, pp. 550-551.

Y. Su, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Ryf, C. R. Doerr, L. M�ller, I. Widjaja, G. Raybon, D. T. Neilson, T. Zhou, L. Buhl and S. Radic, "A multirate upgradeable 1.6-Tb/s Hierarchical OADM network", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 317-319, Jan. 2004.

M. Vasilyev, I. Tomkos, J. Rhee, M. Mehendale, B. Hallock, B. Szalabofka, M. Willams, S. Tsuda and M. Sharma, "Broadcast and select OADM in 80 x 10.7 Gb/s ultra-longhaul network", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 332-334, Feb. 2003.

M. Vasilyev, I. Tomkos, M. Mehendale, J.-K. Rhee, A. Kobyakov, M. Ajgaonkar, S. Tsuda and M. Sharma, "Transparent ultra-long-haul DWDM networks with"broadcast-and-select"OADM/OXC architecture", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, pp. 2661-2672, Nov. 2003.

A. Boskovic, M. Sharma, N. Antoniades and M. Lee, "Broadcast and select OADM nodes application and performance trade-offs", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. , 2002, pp. 158-159.

D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, H. Tang, L. Ko, N. R. Basavanhally, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, J. D. Weld, Y. L. Low, J. Prybyla, R. Scotti, A. Gasparyan, M. Haueis, S. Arney, S. P. O'Neill, C.-S. Pai, D. H. Malkani, M. M. Meyers, N. Saluzzi, S. H. Oh, O. D. Lopez, G. R. Bogart, F. P. Klemens, M. Luo, J. Q. Liu, K. Teffeau, A. Ramirez, K. S. Werder, J. E. Griffith, C. Frye, M. V. Kunnavakkam, S. T. Stanton, J. A. Liddle, H. T. Soh, T-C. Lee, O. Nalamasu and K. C. Nguyen, "High-dynamic range channelized MEMS equalizing filter", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Exhibit 2002 , 2002, pp. 586-588.

D. T. Neilson, H. Tang, D. S. Greywall, N. R. Basavanhally, L. Ko, D. A. Ramsey, J. D. Weld, Y. L. Low, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, P. Busch, J. Prybyla, M. Haueis, C. S. Pai, R. Scotti and R. Ryf, "Channel equalization and blocking filter utilizing micro electro mechanical mirrors", IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. , vol. 10, pp. 563-569, 2004.

T. Zhou, D. O. López, M. E. Simon, F. Pardo, V. A. Aksyuk and D. T. Neilson, "MEMS-based 14 GHz resolution dynamic optical filter", Inst. Elect. Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 24, pp. 1744-1745, 2003.

D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, R. Ryf and H. Shea, "Effect of mirror curvature in MEMS micro-mirror based wavelength-selective switches", in LEOS 2003 16th Ann. Meet., Tucson, AZ,Paper TuO4.

X. Liu, L. F. Mollenauer and X. Wei, "Impact of group-delay ripple in transmission systems including phase-modulated formats", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 305-307, Jan. 2004.

F. Pardo, V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, H. Bair, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, G. R. Bogart, C. A. Bolle, J. E. Bower, D. Carr, H. B. Chan, R. Cirelli, E. Ferry, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, C. R. Giles, L. Gomez, S. Goyal, D. S. Greywall, M. Haueis, R. C. Kellera, J. Kim, F. P. Klemens, P. Kolodner, A. Kornblit, T. Kroupenkine, W. Lai, V. Lifton, J. Q. Liu, Y. Low, W. Mansfield, D. Marom, J. F. Miner, D. T. Neilson, M. Paczkowski, C.-S. Pai, A. Ramirez, D. Ramsey, S. Rogers, R. Ryf, R. Scotti, H. Shea, M. E. Simon, H. T. Soh, H. Tang, J. A. Taylor, K. Teffeau, J. Vuillemin and J. Weld, "Optical MEMS devices for telecom systems", in SPIE's First Int. Symp. Microtechnologies for the New Millennium 2003: Smart Sensors, Actuators and MEMS [5116-59], May 2003.

D. Lopez, M. E. Simon, F. Pardo, V. Aksyuk, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, D. T. Neilson, H. Shea, T. Sorsch, E. Ferry, O. Nalamasu and P. L. Gammel, "Monolithic MEMS optical switch with amplified out-of-plane angular motion", in MOEMS 2002 Int. Conf. Optical MEMs, Lugano, Switzerland,Aug. 2002, Paper ThB5.

D. Lopez, F. Pardo, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, H. R. Shea, D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, R. Cirelli, F. Klemensa, W. Mansfield, L. Fettera, E. Bower, J. Miner and T. Sorsch, "MEMS mirror array for a wavelength selective 1x K switch", in SPIE's First Int. Symp. Microtechnologies for the New Millennium 2003: Smart Sensors, Actuators and MEMS [5116-59], May 2003.

D. S. Greywall, P. Chien-Shing, O. Sang-Hyun, C. Chorng-Ping, D. M. Marom, P. A. Busch, R. A. Cirelli, J. A. Taylor, F. P. Klemens, T. W. Sorsch, J. E. Bower, W. Y.-C. Lai and H. T. Soh, "Monolithic fringe-field-activated crystalline silicon tilting-mirror devices", J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 702-707, Oct. 2003.

D. M. Marom and S. Oh, "Filter-shape dependence on attenuation mechanism in channelized dynamic spectral equalizers", in 15th Ann. Meet. Lasers and Electro-Optics Soc., vol. 2, Nov. <day>13-14</day> 2002, pp. 416-417.

L. M�ller, Y. Su, X. Liu, J. Leuthold and C. Xie, "Ultrahigh-speed optical phase correlated data signals", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1597-1599, Nov. 2003.

D. Penninckx and O. Audouin, "Optically preamplified systems: defining a new eye aperture", in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Exhibit 1998, 1998, Paper WM36.

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