Abstract

A simple and general set of design rules for slanted-angle polarization-rotating waveguides is presented in this paper. These design rules are employed to construct single-mode SOI polarization rotators that offer significant advantages in conversion efficiency, optical loss, fabrication tolerance, spectral response and spatial dimensions relative to III-V components.

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  1. Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller and M. G. Young, "Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 1278-1280, Sep. 1991.
  2. J. J. G. M. van del Tol, F. Hakimzadeh, J. W. Pedersen, D. Li and H. van Brug, "A new short and low-loss passive polarization converter on InP", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 32-34, Jan. 1995.
  3. K. Mertens, B. Scholl and H. J. Schmitt, "Strong polarization conversion in periodically loaded strip waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1133-1135, Aug. 1998.
  4. C. van Dam, et al. "Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra short bends", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1346-1348, Oct. 1996.
  5. V. P. Tzolov and M. Fontaine, "A passive polarization converter free of longitudinally-periodic structure", Opt. Commun., vol. 127, pp. 7-13, Jun. 1996.
  6. J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, G. Nagy, M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood Jr., "Realization of a compact and single-mode optical passive polarization converter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 317 -319, Mar. 2000.
  7. Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens and M. K. Smit, "Design of a short polarization converter on InP/InGaAsP using asymmetrical waveguides", in Proc. Symp. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter , Delft, The Netherlands,Oct. <day>30</day> 2000, pp. 227-230.
  8. B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 938-947, Nov./Dec. 1998.
  9. H. El-Refaei and D. Yevick, "Compact InGaAsP/InP polarization rotator", presented at the OSA Integrated Photonics Research Conf. (IPR'01), Monterey, CA, Paper ITuB5, Jul. 2001.
  10. H. El-Refaei and D. Yevick, "An optimized InGaAgP/InP polarization converter employing asymmetric rib waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1544-1548, Jun. 2003.
  11. B. M. A. Rahman, S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, M. Rajarajan, K. T. V. Grattan and H. A. El-Mikathi, "Design and characterization of compact single-section passive polarization rotator", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 512-519, Apr. 2001.
  12. N. Somasiri, B. M. A. Rahman and S. S. A. Obayya, "Fabrication tolerance study of a compact passive polarization rotator", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 751-757, Apr. 2002.
  13. L. Vincetti, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri and M. Zoboli, "Three-dimensional finite-element beam propagation method: Assessments and developments", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1124-1131, Jun. 2000.
  14. D. Correia, J. P. da Silva and H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, "Genetic algorithm and finite-element design of short single-section passive polarization converter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 915-917, Jul. 2003.
  15. T. Lu and D. Yevick, "A vectorial boundary element method analysis of integrated optical waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1793-1807, Aug. 2003.
  16. D. Yevick, J. Yu, W. Bardyszewski and M. Glasner, "Stability issues in vector electric field propagation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 658-660, Jun. 1995.
  17. D. Yevick, "The application of complex Pade approximants to vector field propagation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1636-1638, Dec. 2000.
  18. M. Koshiba and Y. Tsuji, "Curvilinear hybrid edge/nodal elements with triangular shape for guided-wave problems", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 737-743, May 2000.
  19. M. Koshiba, S. Maruyama and K. Hirayama, "A vector finite element method with the high-order mixed-interpolation-type triangular element for optical waveguide problems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 495-502, Mar. 1994.
  20. M. Koshiba and K. Inoue, "Simple and efficient finite-element analysis of microwave and optical waveguides", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 371-377, Feb. 1992.
  21. R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1971-1974, Aug. 1991.
  22. O. Powell, "Single-mode condition for silicon rib waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1851-1855, Oct. 2002.
  23. S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan and A. Vonsovici, "The single-mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross section", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1851-1853, Oct. 1998.
  24. A. G. Rickman, G. T. Reed and F. Namavar, "Silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguide loss and mode characteristics", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1771-1776, Oct. 1994.
  25. U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt and K. Petermann, "0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in silicon-on-insulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 647-648, May 1996.
  26. H. Deng, D. Yevick, C. Brooks and P. Jessop, "Design procedures for slanted-angle SOI polarization rotators", presented at the OSA/IEEE 2004 Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'04), Los Angles, CA, Feb. <day>22-27</day>, 2004.
  27. C. Brooks, P. Jessop, H. Deng and D. Yevick, "Polarization rotating waveguides in silicon on insulator", presented at the OSA 2004 Integrated Photonics Research Conf. (IPR'04), San Francisco, CA, Jun. 30-Jul. 2 2004.

Other

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller and M. G. Young, "Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 1278-1280, Sep. 1991.

J. J. G. M. van del Tol, F. Hakimzadeh, J. W. Pedersen, D. Li and H. van Brug, "A new short and low-loss passive polarization converter on InP", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 32-34, Jan. 1995.

K. Mertens, B. Scholl and H. J. Schmitt, "Strong polarization conversion in periodically loaded strip waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1133-1135, Aug. 1998.

C. van Dam, et al. "Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra short bends", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1346-1348, Oct. 1996.

V. P. Tzolov and M. Fontaine, "A passive polarization converter free of longitudinally-periodic structure", Opt. Commun., vol. 127, pp. 7-13, Jun. 1996.

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, G. Nagy, M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood Jr., "Realization of a compact and single-mode optical passive polarization converter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 317 -319, Mar. 2000.

Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens and M. K. Smit, "Design of a short polarization converter on InP/InGaAsP using asymmetrical waveguides", in Proc. Symp. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter , Delft, The Netherlands,Oct. <day>30</day> 2000, pp. 227-230.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 938-947, Nov./Dec. 1998.

H. El-Refaei and D. Yevick, "Compact InGaAsP/InP polarization rotator", presented at the OSA Integrated Photonics Research Conf. (IPR'01), Monterey, CA, Paper ITuB5, Jul. 2001.

H. El-Refaei and D. Yevick, "An optimized InGaAgP/InP polarization converter employing asymmetric rib waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1544-1548, Jun. 2003.

B. M. A. Rahman, S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, M. Rajarajan, K. T. V. Grattan and H. A. El-Mikathi, "Design and characterization of compact single-section passive polarization rotator", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 512-519, Apr. 2001.

N. Somasiri, B. M. A. Rahman and S. S. A. Obayya, "Fabrication tolerance study of a compact passive polarization rotator", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 751-757, Apr. 2002.

L. Vincetti, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri and M. Zoboli, "Three-dimensional finite-element beam propagation method: Assessments and developments", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1124-1131, Jun. 2000.

D. Correia, J. P. da Silva and H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, "Genetic algorithm and finite-element design of short single-section passive polarization converter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 915-917, Jul. 2003.

T. Lu and D. Yevick, "A vectorial boundary element method analysis of integrated optical waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1793-1807, Aug. 2003.

D. Yevick, J. Yu, W. Bardyszewski and M. Glasner, "Stability issues in vector electric field propagation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 658-660, Jun. 1995.

D. Yevick, "The application of complex Pade approximants to vector field propagation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1636-1638, Dec. 2000.

M. Koshiba and Y. Tsuji, "Curvilinear hybrid edge/nodal elements with triangular shape for guided-wave problems", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 737-743, May 2000.

M. Koshiba, S. Maruyama and K. Hirayama, "A vector finite element method with the high-order mixed-interpolation-type triangular element for optical waveguide problems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 495-502, Mar. 1994.

M. Koshiba and K. Inoue, "Simple and efficient finite-element analysis of microwave and optical waveguides", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 371-377, Feb. 1992.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1971-1974, Aug. 1991.

O. Powell, "Single-mode condition for silicon rib waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1851-1855, Oct. 2002.

S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan and A. Vonsovici, "The single-mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross section", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1851-1853, Oct. 1998.

A. G. Rickman, G. T. Reed and F. Namavar, "Silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguide loss and mode characteristics", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1771-1776, Oct. 1994.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt and K. Petermann, "0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in silicon-on-insulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 647-648, May 1996.

H. Deng, D. Yevick, C. Brooks and P. Jessop, "Design procedures for slanted-angle SOI polarization rotators", presented at the OSA/IEEE 2004 Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'04), Los Angles, CA, Feb. <day>22-27</day>, 2004.

C. Brooks, P. Jessop, H. Deng and D. Yevick, "Polarization rotating waveguides in silicon on insulator", presented at the OSA 2004 Integrated Photonics Research Conf. (IPR'04), San Francisco, CA, Jun. 30-Jul. 2 2004.

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