Abstract

New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded in polymer via excitation of LR-SPPs is investigated in the wavelength range of 1250-1650 nm. LR-SPP guiding properties, such as the propagation loss and mode-field diameter, are investigated for different stripe widths and thicknesses. A propagation loss of ~6 dB/cm, a coupling loss of ~0.5 dB (per facet), and a bend loss of ~5 dB for a bend radius of 15 mm are evaluated for 15-nm-thick and 8-µm-wide stripes at the wavelength of 1550 nm. LR-SPP-based 3-dB power Y-splitters, multimode interference waveguides, and directional couplers are demonstrated and investigated. At 1570 nm, coupling lengths of 1.9 and 0.8 mm are found for directional couplers with, respectively, 4-and 0-µm-separated waveguides formed by 15-nm-thick and 8-µm-wide gold stripes. LR-SPP-based waveguides and waveguide components are modeled using the effective-refractive-index method, and good agreement with experimental results is obtained.

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Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (26)

J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux and C. Girard, "Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 60, pp. 9061-9068, 1999.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute and J.-P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 64, pp. 045 411-045 419, 2001.

D. Sarid, "Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 47, pp. 1927-1930, 1981.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman and T. Tamir, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 33, pp. 5186-5201, 1986.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 82, pp. 668-670, 2003.

Y. Y. Lu and P. L. Ho, "Beam propagation modeling of arbitrarily bent waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 1698 -1700, Dec. 2002.

A. Kumar and S. Aditya, "Performance of S-bends for integrated-optic waveguides", Microwave Optical Technology Lett., vol. 19, pp. 289-292, 1998.

H. v. Brug, F. H. Groen, Y. S. Oei, J. W. Pedersen, E. C. M. Pennings, D. K. Doeksen and J. J. G. M. v. d. Tol, "Low-loss straight and curved ridge waveguides in LPE-grown GaInAsP", Electron. Lett., vol. 25, pp. 1330-1332, 1989.

R. C. Alferness, "Guided-wave devices for optical communication", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-17, no. 6, pp. 946-959, Jun. 1981.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 615-627, Apr. 1995.

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 61, pp. 10 484-10 503, 2000.

H. Kogelnik, Theory of Dielectric Waveguides, T. Tamir, Ed. Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1979, pp. 64-66.

Y. P. Li and C. H. Henry, "Silica-based optical integrated circuits", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectronics, vol. 143, pp. 263-280, 1996.

R. M. d. Ridder, K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck and H. Albers, "Silicon oxynitride planar waveguiding structures for applications in optical communication", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 930-937, Nov.-Dec. 1998.

M. F. Grant, "Integrated optical waveguide devices on silicon for optical communications", in IEE Colloquium 'Planar Silicon Hybrid Optoelectronics Dig. 1994/198, 1994, p. 1-1-1/10.

R. Chakraborty, "Integrated optical waveguides in LiNbO3: Modeling and experimental analysis", in Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Optical Engineering, vol. 4417, 2001, pp. 278-285.

R. M. Almeida, "Sol-gel planar waveguides for integrated optics", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 259, pp. 176-181, 1999.

L. A. Eldada, "Polymer integrated optics: Promise versus practicality", in Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Optical Engineering, 2002, pp. 11-22.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne and Y. Moreau, "Integrated optics based on organo-mineral materials", Material Science Semiconductor Processing, vol. 3, pp. 331-337, 2000.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons, Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1998.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics", Nature, vol. 424, pp. 824-830, 2003.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeld, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 77, pp. 1889-1892, 1996.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and F. A. Pudonin, "Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 78, pp. 2823-2826, 1997.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 51-53, 2001.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 86, pp. 3008-3011, 2001.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson and A. Boltasseva, "Bend loss in surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 1076-1078, 2001.

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