Abstract

High-index-contrast, wavelength-scale structures are key to ultracompact integration of photonic integrated circuits. The fabrication of these nanophotonic structures in silicon-on-insulator using complementary metal-oxide-seminconductor processing techniques, including deep ultraviolet lithography, was studied. It is concluded that this technology is capable of commercially manufacturing nanophotonic integrated circuits. The possibilities of photonic wires and photonic-crystal waveguides for photonic integration are compared. It is shown that, with similar fabrication techniques, photonic wires perform at least an order of magnitude better than photonic-crystal waveguides with respect to propagation losses. Measurements indicate propagation losses as low as 0.24 dB/mm for photonic wires but 7.5 dB/mm for photonic-crystal waveguides.

© 2005 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid state physics and electronics", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 58, p. 2059, 1987.
  2. J. D. Joannopolous, R. Meade and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals-Molding the Flow of Light, Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1995.
  3. W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Scattering at sidewall roughness in photonic crystal slabs", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 689-691, 2003.
  4. R. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. Camarda, R. Espinola, H. Rao and R. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and t-branches in silicon-on-insulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 1, p. 1, Jan. 2002.
  5. B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 8212-8222, Apr. 1998.
  6. E. Yablonovitch, "Photonic band-gap structures", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 10, pp. 283-296, 1993.
  7. W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in Silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 928-934, Jul.-Aug. 2002.
  8. W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Taillaert, R. Baets and D. De Zutter, "Out-of-plane scattering in photonic crystal slabs", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 565 -567, Jun. 2001.
  9. H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, D. Labilloy, M. Rattier, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. Jouanin and D. Cassagne, "Optical and confinement properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 11, p. 2063, Nov. 1999.
  10. S. J. McNab, N. Moll and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 22, pp. 2927-2939, Nov. 2003.
  11. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi and H. Ryu, "Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1551 -1561, Apr. 2004.
  12. Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa and K. Inoue, "Low propagation loss of 0.76 db/mm in gaas-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1090 -1096, Mar. 2004.
  13. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi and I. Yokohama, "Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 38, no. 7, p. 736, Jul. 2002.
  14. V. Astratov, R. Stevenson, I. Culshaw, D. Whittaker, M. Skolnick, T. Krauss and R. De La Rue, "Heavy photon dispersions in photonic crystal waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 178-180, 2000.
  15. "SOITEC's UNIBOND(r) process", Microelectron. J., vol. 27, no. 4/5, p. R36, 1996.
  16. H. J. Levinson, Principles of Lithography, Washington, DC: SPIE, 2001.
  17. R. Wuest, P. Strasser, M. Jungo, F. Robin, D. Erni and H. Jackel, "An efficient proximity-effect correction method for electron-beam patterning of photonic-crystal devices", Microelectron. Eng., vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 182-188, 2003.
  18. J. Arentoft, T. Sondergaard, M. Kristensen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge and L. Frandsen, "Low-loss silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 274-275, 2002.
  19. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin and F. Cerrina, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 23, p. 1888, 2001.
  20. J. Vaughan, The Fabry-P�rot Interferometer, Bristol, MA: Adam Hilger, 1989.
  21. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1328-1330, May 2004.
  22. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 949-955, Jul. 2002.
  23. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux and S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1583-1591, Apr. 2004.

Other (23)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid state physics and electronics", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 58, p. 2059, 1987.

J. D. Joannopolous, R. Meade and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals-Molding the Flow of Light, Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1995.

W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Scattering at sidewall roughness in photonic crystal slabs", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 689-691, 2003.

R. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. Camarda, R. Espinola, H. Rao and R. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and t-branches in silicon-on-insulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 1, p. 1, Jan. 2002.

B. Little, J. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. Thoen, S. Chu, H. Haus, E. Ippen, L. Kimerling and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 8212-8222, Apr. 1998.

E. Yablonovitch, "Photonic band-gap structures", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 10, pp. 283-296, 1993.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in Silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 928-934, Jul.-Aug. 2002.

W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Taillaert, R. Baets and D. De Zutter, "Out-of-plane scattering in photonic crystal slabs", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 565 -567, Jun. 2001.

H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, D. Labilloy, M. Rattier, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. Jouanin and D. Cassagne, "Optical and confinement properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 11, p. 2063, Nov. 1999.

S. J. McNab, N. Moll and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 22, pp. 2927-2939, Nov. 2003.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi and H. Ryu, "Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1551 -1561, Apr. 2004.

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa and K. Inoue, "Low propagation loss of 0.76 db/mm in gaas-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1090 -1096, Mar. 2004.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi and I. Yokohama, "Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 38, no. 7, p. 736, Jul. 2002.

V. Astratov, R. Stevenson, I. Culshaw, D. Whittaker, M. Skolnick, T. Krauss and R. De La Rue, "Heavy photon dispersions in photonic crystal waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 178-180, 2000.

"SOITEC's UNIBOND(r) process", Microelectron. J., vol. 27, no. 4/5, p. R36, 1996.

H. J. Levinson, Principles of Lithography, Washington, DC: SPIE, 2001.

R. Wuest, P. Strasser, M. Jungo, F. Robin, D. Erni and H. Jackel, "An efficient proximity-effect correction method for electron-beam patterning of photonic-crystal devices", Microelectron. Eng., vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 182-188, 2003.

J. Arentoft, T. Sondergaard, M. Kristensen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge and L. Frandsen, "Low-loss silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 274-275, 2002.

K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin and F. Cerrina, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 23, p. 1888, 2001.

J. Vaughan, The Fabry-P�rot Interferometer, Bristol, MA: Adam Hilger, 1989.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1328-1330, May 2004.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 949-955, Jul. 2002.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux and S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1583-1591, Apr. 2004.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.