Abstract

Optical properties such as refractive index, birefringence, thermal stability, and optical loss of fluorinated co-poly(arylene ether sulfide)s and co-poly(arylene ether sulfone)s were investigated, and they are related to the molecular structure of the polymers. The refractive index of the optical polymers varies in the range of 1.51~1.60,and its variation is well described by a Lorentz-Lorenz equation. Their birefringence varies between 0.0027~0.0039 for the sulfides series and between 0.0009~0.0025 for the sulfone series at a 1.55-µm wavelength, respectively. The birefringence is analyzed based on the microscopic anisotropic ratio of the polarizability of the molecular repeating unit resulting in good linear relationship between them within the polymer groups. This result implies that the molecular calculation can be utilized to design polymers with low birefringence. The propagation losses of the optical polymers were 0.1~0.3 and 0.2~0.5 dB/cm at the wavelength of 1.3 and 1.55 µm, respectively. The optical losses are inversely proportional to fluorine content. The polymers have good thermal stability upon long-term thermal stress at 100°C for 1000 h and short-term thermal stress at 300°C for 1 h.

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Appl. Opt. (3)

Other (31)

B. L. Booth, "Low loss channel waveguides in polymers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1445-1453, Oct. 1989.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 54-68, Jan.-Feb. 2000.

C. F. Kane and R. R. Krchnavek, "Benzocyclobutene optical waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 535-537, May 1995.

G. Fischbeck, R. Moosburger, C. Kostrzewa, A. Achen and K. Petermann, "Single mode optical waveguides using a high temperature stable polymer with low losses in the 1.55 range", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 518-519, 1997.

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen and L. R. Dalton, "Polymer-based optical waveguides: Materials, processing and devices", Adv. Mater., vol. 14, no. 19, pp. 1339 -1365, 2002.

K. D. Singer, T. C. Kowalczyk, H. D. Nguyen, A. J. Beuhler and D. A. Wargowski, "Cross-linked polyimides for integrated circuits", Proc. SPIE, vol. CR68, pp. 399-421, 1998.

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki and F. Yamamoto, "Polyimides derived from 2, 2 ^\prime -bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4^\prime -diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components", Macromolecules, vol. 27, pp. 6665-6670, 1994.

K. S. Han, D.-B. Kim, W.-H. Jang and T. H. Rhee, "Chloro-fluorinated polyimides for low loss optical waveguides application", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2, Lett., vol. 38, pp. L1249-L1251, 1999.

J.-W. Kang, J.-J. Kim, J. Kim, X. Li and M.-H. Lee, "Low-loss and thermally-stable TE-mode selective polymer waveguides using photosensitive fluorinated polyimide", IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1297-1299, Sep. 2002.

R. Yoshimura, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru and S. Imamura, "Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides fabricated with deuterated polyfluoromethacrylate", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1030-1037, Jun. 1998.

M. Usui, M. Hikita, T. Watanabe, M. Amano, S. Sufawara, S. Hayashida and S. Imamura, "Low-loss passive polymer optical waveguides with high environmental stability", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2338-2343, Oct. 1996.

J.-W. Kang, J.-S. Kim and J.-J. Kim, "Optimized oxygen plasma etching of polycarbonate for low-loss optical waveguide fabrication", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Rap. Short Notes, vol. 40, pp. 3215-3219, 2001.

J.-W. Kang, J.-S. Kim, C.-M. Lee, E. Kim and J.-J. Kim, "1 x 2 all-optical switch using photochromic-doped waveguides", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1641-1643, 2000.

J.-W. Kang, J.-J. Kim and E. Kim, "All-optical Mach-Zehnder modulator using a photochromic dye-doped polymer", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, pp. 1710-1712, 2002.

M. C. Oh, H. J. Lee, M. H. Lee, J. H. Ahn and S. G. Han, "Polymeric wavelength filters with polymer gratings", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 72, pp. 1559-1561, 1998.

J.-P. Kim, W.-Y. Lee, J.-W. Kang, S.-K. Kwon, J.-J. Kim and J.-S. Lee, "Fluorinated poly(arylene ether sulfide) for polymeric optical waveguide devices", Macromolecules, vol. 34, pp. 7817-7821, 2001.

J.-W. Kang, J.-P. Kim, W.-Y. Lee, J.-S. Kim, J.-S. Lee and J.-J. Kim, "Low-loss fluorinated poly(arylene ether sulfide) waveguides with high thermal stability", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 872-875, Jun. 2001.

H.-J. Lee, M.-H. Lee, M.-C. Oh, J.-H. Ahn and S. G. Han, "Crosslinkable polymers for optical waveguide devices. II. Fluorinated ether ketone oligomers bearing ethyl group at the chanin end", J. Polym. Sci. A, Poly. Chem., vol. 37, pp. 2355-2361, 1999.

A. A. Goodwin, F. W. Mercer and M. T. McKenzie, "Thermal behavior of fluorinated aromatic polyethers and poly(ether ketone)s", Macromolecules, vol. 30, pp. 2767-2774, 1997.

J.-W. Kang, J.-P. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-S. Lee and J.-J. Kim, "Low-loss polymer optical waveguides using fluorinated poly(arylene ether sulfides and sulfones)", Proc. SPIE , vol. 4905, pp. 9-18, 2002.

J.-P. Kim, J.-W. Kang, J.-J. Kim and J.-S. Lee, "Fluorinated poly(arylene ether sulfone) for optical waveguide devices", Polymer, vol. 44, pp. 4189-4195, 2003.

D. W. Van Krevelen, Ed. Properties of Polymers, Their Estimation and Correlation With Chemical Structure , New York: Elsevier, 1976.

H.-C. Liou, P. S. Ho and A. Mckerrow, "The effect of crosslinking on thermal and mechanical properties of perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers", J. Polym. Sci. B, Polym. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1383-1392, 1998.

J. D. Swalen, "Calculation of indices of refraction of photonic polymers", Proc. SPIE, vol. 3799, pp. 301-307, 1999.

D. Bhaumik, H. H. Jaffe and J. E. Mark, "Polarizabilities of some benzobisoxazole and benzobisthiazole rigid-rod polymers", Macromolecules , vol. 14, pp. 1125-1126, 1981.

L. Lin and A. J. Bidstrup, "Processing effects on optical anisotropy in spin-coated polyimide films", Appl. Poly. Sci., vol. 49, pp. 1277-1289, 1993.

B. Li, T. He, M. Ding, P. Zhang, F. Gao and F. Jing, "Optical anisotropy of flexible polyimide thin film", J. Mater. Res., vol. 13, pp. 1368-1372, 1998.

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, Y. Hida and M. Hikita, "Influence of humidity on refractive index of polymer waveguide and its temperature dependence", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 72, pp. 1533-1535, 1998.

A. Tagaya, S. Iwata, E. Kawanami, H. Tsukahara and Y. Koike, "Anisotropic molecule dopant method for synthesizing a zero-birefringence polymer", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Rap. Short Notes, vol. 40, pp. 6117-6123, 2001.

Y. H. Min, M.-H. Lee and J. Y. Do, "Polarization dependent loss in polymeric rib channel waveguide", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1483 -1485, Nov. 2000.

J. C. Coburn, M. T. Pottiger, S. C. Noe and S. D. Senturia, "Stress in polyimide coatings", J. Polym. Sci. B, Polym. Phys., vol. 32, pp. 1271-1283, 1994.

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