Abstract

To study the hydroxyl (OH)-group contamination mechanisms in silica-based optical fibers, the transmission spectra of substrate tubes and fiber preforms made from various types of silica glasses ("Suprasil F-300," KS-4V, and KUVI) are measured by the method of infrared Fourier spectroscopy in a wavelength region of 2-5 µm. Due to the intensity of the fundamental OH stretching vibration band, the absorption coefficient, concentration, and a distribution profile of OH groups across the aforesaid samples are calculated. It is found that using an oxyhydrogen burner in the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process of manufacturing preforms and fiber drawing, the main source of impurity OH groups can be the molecular hydrogen H2 penetrating into glass much deeper than the OH groups diffusing from the substrate tube surface. A simple model explaining the formation and diffusion of OH groups into a fiber core and cladding is proposed. It is shown that heating tubes and preforms in a flame of oxyhydrogen burner during fiber fabrication causes a significant OH-group content growth (almost by two orders of magnitude) near to the outer preform surface. Using substrate tubes made from Suprasil F-300 glass, optical fibers are fabricated having a silica core and fluorosilicate reflecting cladding with optical losses of 0.3 dB/km at 1.55 µm and a refractive-index difference between core and cladding ~ 1 · 10^-2.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. P. Kaiser, "Spectral losses of unclad fibers made from high grade vitreous silica", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 23, no. 1, p. 45, 1973.
  2. M. Horiguchi and M. Kawachi, "Measurement technique of OH-ion distribution profile in rod preform of silica-based optical fiber waveguides", Appl. Opt. , vol. 17, no. 16, pp. 2570-2574, Aug. <day>15</day>, 1978.
  3. A. Agarwal, K. M. Davis and M. Tomozawa, "A simple IR spectroscopic method for determining fictive temperature of silica glasses", J. Non-Cryst. Solids , vol. 185, pp. 191-198, 1995.
  4. E. B. Kryukova, V. G. Plotnichenko and E. M. Dianov, "IR absorption spectra in high-purity silica glasses fabricated by different technologies", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4083, 2000, pp. 71-80.
  5. S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney and K. L. Walker, "An overview of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and performance", J. Quantum Electron. , vol. QE-19, no. 4, p. 459, Apr. 1982.
  6. A. V. Belov, M. M. Bubnov, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. G. Pimenov, D. A. Timonin and V. F. Hopin, "Influence of purity of substrate silica tubes on optical loss in fiber waveguides", High-Purity Substances, no. 5, pp. 193-197, 1987.
  7. V. V. Grigoryants, G. A. Ivanov and Yu. K. Chamorovsky, "Single-mode optical fibers", Dig."Results of Science and Engineering", vol. 1, p. 67, 1988.
  8. V. A. Aksenov, A. V. Belov and G. A. Ivanov, "Optical fibers with silica core and fluorosilicate cladding", in Proc. Information Technology in Science Education (IT-SE 2001), Gurzuf, Ukraine, 2001, p. 284.
  9. W. J. Pitt, "Hydroxyl contamination of optical preforms during the collapse process", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), 1983, p. 17.
  10. O. Yu. Bogdanova, M. A. Eronyan and Yu. N. Kondrat'ev, "Influence of hydrogen impurity in starting materials on optical absorption in silica fibers", Physics Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 15, no. 6, p. 895, 1989.
  11. M. M. Bubnov, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Kim, V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev and V. F. Hopin, "Influence of material purity of substrate tubes on initial and induced optical losses in optical fibers made from germanosilicate glass", High-Purity Substances, no. 6, pp. 188-192, 1987.
  12. V. Lou, R. Sato and M. Tomozawa, "Hydrogen diffusion in fused silica at high temperatures", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 315, pp. 13-19, 2003.
  13. T. Bell, G. Hetherington and K. H. Jack, "Water in vitreous silica. Part 2: Some aspects of hydrogen-water-silica equilibria", Physics Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 141, 1962.
  14. M. A. Eronyan, "Optical fibers for control, metrology, and diagnostics", Ph.D. dissertation, State Optical Institute, St.-Petersburg, Russia, 2002. <trannot></trannot>.
  15. G. Hetherington and K. H. Jack, "Water in vitreous silica. Part 1", Physics Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 129, 1962.
  16. A. M. Steen and E. Papanikolau, "Introduction and removal of hydroxyl groups in vitreous silica. Part 1", Philips Res. Reps., vol. 30, no. 2/3, p. 103, 1975.
  17. A. M. Steen, "Some thermodynamic data on the redaction of vitreous silica. Part 3", Philips Res. Reps., vol. 30, no. 5, p. 309, 1975.
  18. R. W. Lee, R. C. Frank and D. E. Swets, "Diffusion of hydrogen and deuterium in fused quartz", J. Chem. Phys., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 1062-1071, 1962.
  19. V. A. Aksenov, A. V. Belov, I. L. Vorob'ev and G. A. Ivanov, "Optimization of parameters of the single-mode optical fibers with a silica core and fluorosilicate cladding", in Proc. LVII Scientific Session Popov Russian Scientific Technical Society Radio Engineering Electronics, May 2002, pp. 218-221.

Other (19)

P. Kaiser, "Spectral losses of unclad fibers made from high grade vitreous silica", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 23, no. 1, p. 45, 1973.

M. Horiguchi and M. Kawachi, "Measurement technique of OH-ion distribution profile in rod preform of silica-based optical fiber waveguides", Appl. Opt. , vol. 17, no. 16, pp. 2570-2574, Aug. <day>15</day>, 1978.

A. Agarwal, K. M. Davis and M. Tomozawa, "A simple IR spectroscopic method for determining fictive temperature of silica glasses", J. Non-Cryst. Solids , vol. 185, pp. 191-198, 1995.

E. B. Kryukova, V. G. Plotnichenko and E. M. Dianov, "IR absorption spectra in high-purity silica glasses fabricated by different technologies", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4083, 2000, pp. 71-80.

S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney and K. L. Walker, "An overview of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and performance", J. Quantum Electron. , vol. QE-19, no. 4, p. 459, Apr. 1982.

A. V. Belov, M. M. Bubnov, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. G. Pimenov, D. A. Timonin and V. F. Hopin, "Influence of purity of substrate silica tubes on optical loss in fiber waveguides", High-Purity Substances, no. 5, pp. 193-197, 1987.

V. V. Grigoryants, G. A. Ivanov and Yu. K. Chamorovsky, "Single-mode optical fibers", Dig."Results of Science and Engineering", vol. 1, p. 67, 1988.

V. A. Aksenov, A. V. Belov and G. A. Ivanov, "Optical fibers with silica core and fluorosilicate cladding", in Proc. Information Technology in Science Education (IT-SE 2001), Gurzuf, Ukraine, 2001, p. 284.

W. J. Pitt, "Hydroxyl contamination of optical preforms during the collapse process", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), 1983, p. 17.

O. Yu. Bogdanova, M. A. Eronyan and Yu. N. Kondrat'ev, "Influence of hydrogen impurity in starting materials on optical absorption in silica fibers", Physics Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 15, no. 6, p. 895, 1989.

M. M. Bubnov, A. N. Guryanov, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Kim, V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev and V. F. Hopin, "Influence of material purity of substrate tubes on initial and induced optical losses in optical fibers made from germanosilicate glass", High-Purity Substances, no. 6, pp. 188-192, 1987.

V. Lou, R. Sato and M. Tomozawa, "Hydrogen diffusion in fused silica at high temperatures", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 315, pp. 13-19, 2003.

T. Bell, G. Hetherington and K. H. Jack, "Water in vitreous silica. Part 2: Some aspects of hydrogen-water-silica equilibria", Physics Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 141, 1962.

M. A. Eronyan, "Optical fibers for control, metrology, and diagnostics", Ph.D. dissertation, State Optical Institute, St.-Petersburg, Russia, 2002. <trannot></trannot>.

G. Hetherington and K. H. Jack, "Water in vitreous silica. Part 1", Physics Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 129, 1962.

A. M. Steen and E. Papanikolau, "Introduction and removal of hydroxyl groups in vitreous silica. Part 1", Philips Res. Reps., vol. 30, no. 2/3, p. 103, 1975.

A. M. Steen, "Some thermodynamic data on the redaction of vitreous silica. Part 3", Philips Res. Reps., vol. 30, no. 5, p. 309, 1975.

R. W. Lee, R. C. Frank and D. E. Swets, "Diffusion of hydrogen and deuterium in fused quartz", J. Chem. Phys., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 1062-1071, 1962.

V. A. Aksenov, A. V. Belov, I. L. Vorob'ev and G. A. Ivanov, "Optimization of parameters of the single-mode optical fibers with a silica core and fluorosilicate cladding", in Proc. LVII Scientific Session Popov Russian Scientific Technical Society Radio Engineering Electronics, May 2002, pp. 218-221.

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