Abstract

A noise theory for four-wave-mixing (FWM) tone generated by nonlinear interaction of channels of a wavelength-division-multiplexed system is described. Analytical expressions for power spectral density and variance of FWM noise are derived without ignoring group-velocity walk-off between channels. The results show that the variance of FWM noise exhibits sharp minima and maxima as a function of channel separation which is due to the coherent interaction between channels. When the walk-off distance is large or comparable to effective fiber length, FWM penalty can be reduced by introducing a suitable initial delay between interacting channels.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, 1997, ch. 8.
  2. K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda and H. Toba, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four wave mixing in multichannel transmissions", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1423-1439, Aug. 1994.
  3. R. W. Tkach, A. R. Charplyvy, F. Forghieri, A. H. Gnauck and R. M. Derosier, "Four-photon mixing and high speed WDM systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 841-849, May 1995.
  4. K. Inoue, "Experimental study on channel crosstalk due to fiber four wave mixing around the zero dispersion wavelength", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1023-1028, Jun. 1994.
  5. K. Inoue, "Fiber four wave mixing in multi-amplifier systems with nonuniform chromatic dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 88-93, Jan. 1995.
  6. S. P. Burtsev, J. K. Rhee, J. E. Hurley and S. Y. Ten, "Four-wave mixing as a finite bandwidth noise: Theory & experimental verification", presented at the 25th Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC 1999), Nice, France, Sep. <day>26-30</day>, 1999.
  7. S. Kumar, G. G. Luther and J. Hurley, "Finite-band noise theory and experiment for four-wave mixing in RZ transmission systems", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2001 , Anaheim, CA, Mar. <day>12-17</day>, 2000.
  8. K. Inoue, "Influence of four wave mixing in multichannel return to zero signal transmissions", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 293-295, Feb. 1996.
  9. F. Forghieri, P. R. Prucnal, R. W. Tkach and A. R. Charplyvy, "RZ versus NRZ in nonlinear WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1035 -1037, Jul. 1997.
  10. F. Matera, M. Settembre, M. Tamburrini, M. Zitelli and S. Turitsyn, "Reduction of the four wave mixing in optically amplified links by reducing pulse overlapping", Opt. Comm. , vol. 181, pp. 407-411, 2000.

Other

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, 1997, ch. 8.

K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda and H. Toba, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four wave mixing in multichannel transmissions", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1423-1439, Aug. 1994.

R. W. Tkach, A. R. Charplyvy, F. Forghieri, A. H. Gnauck and R. M. Derosier, "Four-photon mixing and high speed WDM systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 841-849, May 1995.

K. Inoue, "Experimental study on channel crosstalk due to fiber four wave mixing around the zero dispersion wavelength", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1023-1028, Jun. 1994.

K. Inoue, "Fiber four wave mixing in multi-amplifier systems with nonuniform chromatic dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 88-93, Jan. 1995.

S. P. Burtsev, J. K. Rhee, J. E. Hurley and S. Y. Ten, "Four-wave mixing as a finite bandwidth noise: Theory & experimental verification", presented at the 25th Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC 1999), Nice, France, Sep. <day>26-30</day>, 1999.

S. Kumar, G. G. Luther and J. Hurley, "Finite-band noise theory and experiment for four-wave mixing in RZ transmission systems", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2001 , Anaheim, CA, Mar. <day>12-17</day>, 2000.

K. Inoue, "Influence of four wave mixing in multichannel return to zero signal transmissions", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 293-295, Feb. 1996.

F. Forghieri, P. R. Prucnal, R. W. Tkach and A. R. Charplyvy, "RZ versus NRZ in nonlinear WDM systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1035 -1037, Jul. 1997.

F. Matera, M. Settembre, M. Tamburrini, M. Zitelli and S. Turitsyn, "Reduction of the four wave mixing in optically amplified links by reducing pulse overlapping", Opt. Comm. , vol. 181, pp. 407-411, 2000.

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