Abstract

Two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading coding schemes have been studied recently for supporting greater numbers of subscribers and simultaneous users than conventional one-dimensional approaches in optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) systems. To further improve both numbers without sacrificing performance, a new code design utilizing bipolar codes for both wavelength hopping and time spreading is studied and analyzed in this paper. A rapidly programmable, integratable hardware design for this new coding scheme, based on arrayed-waveguide gratings, is also discussed.

© 2005 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. E. Park, A. J. Mendez and E. Garmire, "Temporal/spatial optical COMA networks-Design, demonstration and comparison with temporal networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1160-1162, Oct. 1992.
  2. L. Tancevski and I. Andonovic, "Wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 1388-1390, Aug. 1994.
  3. A. J. Mendez, J. L. Lambert, J.-M. Morookian and R. M. Gagliardi, "Synthesis and demonstration of high speed, bandwidth efficient optical code division multiple access (COMA) tested at 1 Gb/s throughput", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1146-1148, Sep. 1994.
  4. G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, "Performance comparison of multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA+CDMA for fiber-optic networks", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1426-1434, Nov. 1997.
  5. H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch and S. LaRochelle, "Passive optical fast frequency-hop CDMA communications system", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 397-405, Mar. 1999.
  6. A. J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, H. X. C. Feng, J. P. Heritage and J.-M. Morookian, "Strategies for realizing optical CDMA for dense, high speed, long span, optical network applications", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1685-1696, Dec. 2000.
  7. G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes With Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks, Boston, MA: Artech House, 2002.
  8. A. J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, V. J. Hernandez, C. V. Bennett and W. J. Lennon, "Design and performance analysis of Wavelength/Time (W/T) matrix codes for optical COMA", J. Lightw, Technol. , vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2524-2533, Nov. 2003.
  9. H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba and Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide Nx N wavelength multiplexer", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 447-455, Mar. 1995.
  10. S. Kim, "Cyclic optical encoders/decoders for compact optical CDMA networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 428 -430, Apr. 2000.
  11. S. Yegnanarayanan, A. S. Bhushan and B. Jalali, "Fast wavelength-hopping time-spreading encoding/decoding for optical CDMA", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 573-576, May 2000.
  12. K. Yu, J. Shin and N. Park, "Wavelength-time spreading optical CDMA system using wavelength multiplexers and mirrored fiber delay lines", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1278-1280, Sep. 2000.
  13. L. R. Chen, "Flexible fiber Bragg grating encoder/decoder for hybrid wavelength-time optical CDMA", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1233 -1235, Nov. 2001.
  14. P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen and D. Richardson, "A comparative study of the performance of seven-and 63-chip optical code-division multiple-access encoders and decoders based on superstructured fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1352-1365, Sep. 2001.
  15. C.-C. Yang, J.-F. Huang and S.-P. Tseng, "Optical CDMA network codecs structured with M-sequence codes over waveguide-grating routers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 641-643, Feb. 2004.
  16. S. W. Golomb and H. Taylor, "Two-dimensional synchronization patterns for minimum ambiguity", IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory , vol. IT-28, no. 4, pp. 600-604, Jul. 1982.
  17. S. W. Golomb, T. Etzion and H. Taylor, "Sets of sonar sequences", in Proc. 1991 IEEE Int. Symp. Information Theory (Cat. No. 91 CH3003-1) , June <day>24-28</day> 1991, p. 383.
  18. O. Moreno, R. Games and H. Taylor, "New constructions and bounds on sonar sequences", in Proc. 1991 IEEE Int. Symp. Information Theory (Cat. No. 91 CH3003-1), Jun. <day>24-28</day> 1991, p. 283.
  19. O. Moreno, R. A. Games and H. Taylor, "Sonar sequences from Costas arrays and the best known sonar sequences with up to 100 symbols", IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1985-1987, Nov. 1993.
  20. L. Bin, "One-coincidence sequences with specified distance between adjacent symbols of frequency-hopping multiple access", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 408-410, Apr. 1997.
  21. Z. Wei, H. M. H. Shalaby and H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Modified quadratic congruence codes for fiber Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1274-1281, Sep. 2001.
  22. R. M. H. Yim, L. R. Chen and J. Bajcsy, "Design and performance of 2-D codes for wavelength-time optical CDMA", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 714 -716, May 2002.
  23. F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi and V. K. Wei, "Optical orthogonal codes: design, analysis and applications", IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 595-604, May 1989.
  24. G.-C. Yang and T. Fuja, "Optical orthogonal codes with unequal auto-and cross-correlation constraints", IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 96-106, Jan. 1995.
  25. L. Nguyen, T. Dennis, B. Aazhang and J. F. Young, "Experimental demonstration of bipolar codes for optical spectral amplitude CDMA communication", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1647-1653, Sep. 1997.
  26. C. F. Lam, D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu and E. Yablonovitch, "Experimental demonstration of bipolar optical CDMA system using a balanced transmitter and complementary spectral encoding", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1504-1506, Oct. 1998.
  27. J.-F. Huang and D.-Z. Hsu, "Fiber-grating-based optical CDMA spectral coding with nearly orthogonal m-sequence codes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1252-1254, Sep. 2000.
  28. W. C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang and Y.-C. Liu, "A new family of wavelength-time optical CDMA codes utilizing programmable arrayed waveguide gratings", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.,
  29. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications , 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995.
  30. A. W. Lam and S. Tantaratana, Theory and Application of Spread Spectrum Systems, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 1994.
  31. T.-W. F. Chang and E. H. Sargent, "Optimizing spectral efficiency in multiwavelength optical CDMA system", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 1442-1445, Sep. 2003.
  32. J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk and M. Kane, "A terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD)", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 787 -790, Jul. 1993.
  33. I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff and P. R. Prucnal, "Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing of TDM data at 250 Gb/s", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 339-341, Feb. 1994.
  34. J. H. Lee, P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen and D. Richardson, "A grating-based OCDMA coding-decoding system incorporating a nonlinear optical loop mirror for improved code recognition and noise reduction", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 36-46, Jan. 2002.

Other

E. Park, A. J. Mendez and E. Garmire, "Temporal/spatial optical COMA networks-Design, demonstration and comparison with temporal networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1160-1162, Oct. 1992.

L. Tancevski and I. Andonovic, "Wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 1388-1390, Aug. 1994.

A. J. Mendez, J. L. Lambert, J.-M. Morookian and R. M. Gagliardi, "Synthesis and demonstration of high speed, bandwidth efficient optical code division multiple access (COMA) tested at 1 Gb/s throughput", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1146-1148, Sep. 1994.

G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, "Performance comparison of multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA+CDMA for fiber-optic networks", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1426-1434, Nov. 1997.

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch and S. LaRochelle, "Passive optical fast frequency-hop CDMA communications system", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 397-405, Mar. 1999.

A. J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, H. X. C. Feng, J. P. Heritage and J.-M. Morookian, "Strategies for realizing optical CDMA for dense, high speed, long span, optical network applications", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1685-1696, Dec. 2000.

G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes With Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks, Boston, MA: Artech House, 2002.

A. J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, V. J. Hernandez, C. V. Bennett and W. J. Lennon, "Design and performance analysis of Wavelength/Time (W/T) matrix codes for optical COMA", J. Lightw, Technol. , vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2524-2533, Nov. 2003.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba and Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide Nx N wavelength multiplexer", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 447-455, Mar. 1995.

S. Kim, "Cyclic optical encoders/decoders for compact optical CDMA networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 428 -430, Apr. 2000.

S. Yegnanarayanan, A. S. Bhushan and B. Jalali, "Fast wavelength-hopping time-spreading encoding/decoding for optical CDMA", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 573-576, May 2000.

K. Yu, J. Shin and N. Park, "Wavelength-time spreading optical CDMA system using wavelength multiplexers and mirrored fiber delay lines", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1278-1280, Sep. 2000.

L. R. Chen, "Flexible fiber Bragg grating encoder/decoder for hybrid wavelength-time optical CDMA", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1233 -1235, Nov. 2001.

P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen and D. Richardson, "A comparative study of the performance of seven-and 63-chip optical code-division multiple-access encoders and decoders based on superstructured fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1352-1365, Sep. 2001.

C.-C. Yang, J.-F. Huang and S.-P. Tseng, "Optical CDMA network codecs structured with M-sequence codes over waveguide-grating routers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 641-643, Feb. 2004.

S. W. Golomb and H. Taylor, "Two-dimensional synchronization patterns for minimum ambiguity", IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory , vol. IT-28, no. 4, pp. 600-604, Jul. 1982.

S. W. Golomb, T. Etzion and H. Taylor, "Sets of sonar sequences", in Proc. 1991 IEEE Int. Symp. Information Theory (Cat. No. 91 CH3003-1) , June <day>24-28</day> 1991, p. 383.

O. Moreno, R. Games and H. Taylor, "New constructions and bounds on sonar sequences", in Proc. 1991 IEEE Int. Symp. Information Theory (Cat. No. 91 CH3003-1), Jun. <day>24-28</day> 1991, p. 283.

O. Moreno, R. A. Games and H. Taylor, "Sonar sequences from Costas arrays and the best known sonar sequences with up to 100 symbols", IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1985-1987, Nov. 1993.

L. Bin, "One-coincidence sequences with specified distance between adjacent symbols of frequency-hopping multiple access", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 408-410, Apr. 1997.

Z. Wei, H. M. H. Shalaby and H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Modified quadratic congruence codes for fiber Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1274-1281, Sep. 2001.

R. M. H. Yim, L. R. Chen and J. Bajcsy, "Design and performance of 2-D codes for wavelength-time optical CDMA", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 714 -716, May 2002.

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi and V. K. Wei, "Optical orthogonal codes: design, analysis and applications", IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 595-604, May 1989.

G.-C. Yang and T. Fuja, "Optical orthogonal codes with unequal auto-and cross-correlation constraints", IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 96-106, Jan. 1995.

L. Nguyen, T. Dennis, B. Aazhang and J. F. Young, "Experimental demonstration of bipolar codes for optical spectral amplitude CDMA communication", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1647-1653, Sep. 1997.

C. F. Lam, D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu and E. Yablonovitch, "Experimental demonstration of bipolar optical CDMA system using a balanced transmitter and complementary spectral encoding", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1504-1506, Oct. 1998.

J.-F. Huang and D.-Z. Hsu, "Fiber-grating-based optical CDMA spectral coding with nearly orthogonal m-sequence codes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1252-1254, Sep. 2000.

W. C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang and Y.-C. Liu, "A new family of wavelength-time optical CDMA codes utilizing programmable arrayed waveguide gratings", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.,

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications , 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995.

A. W. Lam and S. Tantaratana, Theory and Application of Spread Spectrum Systems, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 1994.

T.-W. F. Chang and E. H. Sargent, "Optimizing spectral efficiency in multiwavelength optical CDMA system", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 1442-1445, Sep. 2003.

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk and M. Kane, "A terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD)", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 787 -790, Jul. 1993.

I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff and P. R. Prucnal, "Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing of TDM data at 250 Gb/s", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 339-341, Feb. 1994.

J. H. Lee, P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen and D. Richardson, "A grating-based OCDMA coding-decoding system incorporating a nonlinear optical loop mirror for improved code recognition and noise reduction", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 36-46, Jan. 2002.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.