Abstract

We demonstrate the characterization of optical sources with high sensitivity, high temporal resolution, and phase sensitivity using linear optical sampling. Eye diagrams and constellation diagrams are reconstructed using the interference of the source under test with a train of sampling pulses. This concept is implemented using a waveguide optical hybrid, which splits and recombines the sources and adjusts the phase between the recombined signals to provide optimal detection. This diagnostic is used to characterize on-off keyed (OOK) waveforms at rates up to 640 Gb/s and various phase-shift keyed (PSK) signals at 10 and 40 Gb/s.

© 2005 IEEE

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Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, "All-optical reshaping in a 160-Gb/s OTDM receiver using an XAM gate followed by an SPM discriminator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1909-1911, 2004.

B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, A. J. Stentz, T. N. Nielsen, D. W. Peckham, L. Hsu, L. Gruner-Nielsen, K. Dreyer and J. E. Johnson, "320-Gb/s single-channel pseudolinear transmission over 200 km of nonzero-dispersion fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1400-1402, 2000.

A. H. Gnauck and P. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 115-130, Jan. 2005.

A. H. Gnauck, "40-Gb/s RZ-differential phase shift keyed transmission", in Proc. Conf. Optical Fiber Communication, 2003, Paper ThE1.

C. Xu, X. Liu and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 10, pp. 281-293, 2004.

P. A. Andrekson, "Ultrahigh bandwidth optical sampling oscilloscopes", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication, 2004, Paper TuO1.

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 987-989, 2001.

H. Ohta, N. Banjo, N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa and Y. Yanagisawa, "Measuring eye diagram of 320 Gb/s optical signal by optical sampling using passively modelocked fiber laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 1541-1542, 2001.

I. Kang and K. Dreyer, "Sensitive 320 Gbit/s eye diagram measurements via optical sampling with semiconductor optical amplifier-ultrafast nonlinear interferometer", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1081-1083, 2003.

J. Li, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. E. Olsson, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "0.5 Tbit/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using XPM-induced wavelength shifting in highly nonlinear fiber", in Proc. Europ. Conf. Optical Communications, 2003, Paper Mo4.6.4.

N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa and H. Ohta, "Measuring eye diagram of 640-Gbit/s OTDM signal with optical sampling system by using wavelength-tunable soliton pulse", in Proc. Europ. Conf. Optical Communications, 2003, Mo4.6.5.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon and M. G. Raymer, "Linear optical sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1746-1748, 2003.

T. Chikama, S. Watanabe, T. Naito, H. Onaka, T. Kiyonaga, Y. Onoda, H. Miyata, M. Suyama, M. Seino and H. Kuwahara, "Modulation and demodulation techniques in optical heterodyne PSK transmission systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 8, pp. 309-325, 1990.

D. F. Mc Alister and M. G. Raymer, "Ultrafast photon-number correlations from dual-pulse, phase-averaged homodyne detection", Phys. Rev. A, vol. 55, pp. 1609-1612, 1997.

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf and P. J. Winzer, "High-sensitivity high resolution sampling using linear optical and waveguide optical hybrid", in Proc. Conf. Optical Fiber Communications, 2004, Paper PDP18.

C. Dorrer, J. Leuthold and C. R. Doerr, "Direct measurement of constellation diagrams of optical sources", in Proc. Conf. Optical Fiber Communication , 2004, Paper PDP33.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye and J. L. Hall, "Optical frequency synthesis based on mode-locked lasers", Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 72, pp. 3749-3771, 2001.

X. Wei, X. Liu and C. Xu, "Numerical simulation of the SPM penalty in a 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK system", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1636-1638, 2003.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, R. Pafchek, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, E. Laskowski, G. Bogert and G. Richards, "Potentially low-startup-cost wavelength add-drop node using silica waveguide integration", J. Lightw. Technol. , 2004. to be published.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. J. Deri, R. Bhat, T. R. Hayes and N. C. Andreakis, "Ultracompact, all-passive optical 90° -hybrid on InP using self-imaging", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 701 -703, 1993.

S. Norimatsu, N. Takachio, Y. Inoue, M. Hosoya, H. Tsunetsugu and S. Hata, "An optical 90° -hybrid balanced receiver module using a planar lightwave circuit", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 737 -740, 1994.

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. C. Andreakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole and J.-I. Song, "Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 1238 -1240, 1992.

I. Kang and M. Yan, "Simple setup for simultaneous optical clock recovery and ultra-short sampling pulse generation", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1199-1201, 2002.

I. Shake, H. Takara and S. Kawanishi, "Simple measurement of eye diagram and BER using high-speed asynchronous sampling", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, pp. 1296-1302, 2004.

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto and K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third-and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 2027-2029, 2000.

L. M�ller, Y. Su, X. Liu, J. Leuthold and X. Xie, "Ultrahigh-speed optical phase correlated data signals", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1597-1599, 2003.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr and L. W. Stulz, "1-Tb/s (6 170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 1618-1620, 2003.

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