Abstract

We demonstrate that UV exposure of highly nonlinear, germano-silicate fibers can significantly broaden the infrared supercontinuum generated by femtosecond pulses in these fibers. Both simulations and measurements of the fiber chromatic dispersion show that UV-induced refractive index changes increase the waveguide dispersion by up to 5 ps/(nm-km) at 1570 nm and shift the dispersion zero by over 100 nm. We examine fibers with a range of UV exposure levels and show that the short wavelength edge of the supercontinuum can be continuously changed by more than 100 nm. We also show that the long wavelength edge is extended beyond that of the unexposed fiber. The resulting continuum spans from 0.85 to 2.6 µm. Cutback measurements show that the supercontinuum in the exposed fiber is generated in as little as 1 cm of fiber. A nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) model of the supercontinuum generation in the nonlinear fiber shows that the short wavelength behavior of the continuum is primarily controlled by changes in the fiber dispersion caused by the UV-induced change in refractive index of the fiber core.

© 2005 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. R. R. Alfano, Ed. The Supercontinuum Laser Source, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.
  2. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 25-27, Jan. 2000.
  3. T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 19, pp. 1415-1417, Oct. 2000.
  4. J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, A. Yablon, C. J�rgensen and T. Veng, "All-fiber, octave-spanning supercontinuum", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 643-645, Apr. 2003.
  5. T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa and M. Nichimura, "Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 5, pp. 1385-1391, Sep.-Oct. 1999.
  6. C. G. J�rgensen, T. Veng, L. Gruner-Nielsen and M. Yan, "Dispersion flattened highly nonlinear fiber", in Proc. 29th Europ. Conf. Opt. Commun., ECOC '03, Rimini, Italy, pp. 556- 557.
  7. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-Envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis", Science, vol. 288, pp. 635-639, Apr. 2000.
  8. B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan and C. G. Jorgensen, "Phase-locked erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 250-252, Feb. 2004.
  9. L. S. Ma, Z. Y. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10-19 level", Science, vol. 303, pp. 1843-1845, Mar. 2004.
  10. I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka and R. S. Windeler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air silica microstructure optical fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 608-610, May 2001.
  11. S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, I. Shake and K. Mori, "3 Tbit/s (160 Gbit/s x 19 channel) optical TDM and WDM transmission experiment", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 826-827, May 1999.
  12. J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage and K. Brar, "Stretched ultrashort pulses for high repetition rate swept-wavelength Raman pumping", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 22, pp. 71-78, Jan. 2004.
  13. J. Jasapara, T. H. Her, R. Bise, R. Windeler and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Group-velocity dispersion measurements in a photonic bandgap fiber", J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1611-1615, Aug. 2003.
  14. K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in microstructure fiber", Appl. Phys. B, vol. 77, pp. 269-269, 2003.
  15. T. Hori, J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, "Flatly broadened, wideband and low noise supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear hybrid fiber", Opt. Expr. , vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 317-324, Jan. 2004.
  16. J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan and C. G. J�rgensen, "Pulsed and continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers", Applied Physics B, vol. 77, pp. 211-218, 2003.
  17. W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers", Nature, vol. 424, pp. 511-515, Jul. 2003.
  18. F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer and W. Zinth, "Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:Fiber system: Nonlinear pulse shortening and self referencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution", Opt. Expr., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 594-600, Mar. 2003.
  19. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication", Appl Phy. Lett., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 647-649, May 1978.
  20. J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder and A. D. Yablon, "Supercontinuum generation in ultraviolet-irradiated fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2363-2365, Oct. 2004.
  21. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, New York: Academic Press, 1999.
  22. D. A. Simoff, R. P. Espindola, M. A. Paczkowski, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang and A. Hale, "UV-Transparent coatings for the fabrication of optical fiber gratings", Polym. Preprints, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 1289-1290, Aug. 1999.
  23. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, second ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995, ch. 2.
  24. J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder and M. F. Yan, "High power, single mode, all-fiber source of femtosecond pulses at 1550 nm and its use in supercontinuum generation", Opt. Expr., vol. 12, no. 13, pp. 3025-3034, June 2004.
  25. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler and A. J. Stentz, "Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 796-798, Jun. 2000.
  26. A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, "Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers", Opt. Expr., vol. 11, no. 20, pp. 2567 -2576, 2003.
  27. H. Shang, "Chromatic dispersion measurement by white-light interferometry on meter-length single-mode optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 17, no. 17, pp. 603-605, Aug. 1981.

Other (27)

R. R. Alfano, Ed. The Supercontinuum Laser Source, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 25-27, Jan. 2000.

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 19, pp. 1415-1417, Oct. 2000.

J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, A. Yablon, C. J�rgensen and T. Veng, "All-fiber, octave-spanning supercontinuum", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 643-645, Apr. 2003.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa and M. Nichimura, "Silica-based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 5, pp. 1385-1391, Sep.-Oct. 1999.

C. G. J�rgensen, T. Veng, L. Gruner-Nielsen and M. Yan, "Dispersion flattened highly nonlinear fiber", in Proc. 29th Europ. Conf. Opt. Commun., ECOC '03, Rimini, Italy, pp. 556- 557.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-Envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis", Science, vol. 288, pp. 635-639, Apr. 2000.

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan and C. G. Jorgensen, "Phase-locked erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 250-252, Feb. 2004.

L. S. Ma, Z. Y. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10-19 level", Science, vol. 303, pp. 1843-1845, Mar. 2004.

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka and R. S. Windeler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air silica microstructure optical fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 608-610, May 2001.

S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, I. Shake and K. Mori, "3 Tbit/s (160 Gbit/s x 19 channel) optical TDM and WDM transmission experiment", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 826-827, May 1999.

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, J.-C. Bouteiller, J. Bromage and K. Brar, "Stretched ultrashort pulses for high repetition rate swept-wavelength Raman pumping", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 22, pp. 71-78, Jan. 2004.

J. Jasapara, T. H. Her, R. Bise, R. Windeler and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Group-velocity dispersion measurements in a photonic bandgap fiber", J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1611-1615, Aug. 2003.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in microstructure fiber", Appl. Phys. B, vol. 77, pp. 269-269, 2003.

T. Hori, J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, "Flatly broadened, wideband and low noise supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear hybrid fiber", Opt. Expr. , vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 317-324, Jan. 2004.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan and C. G. J�rgensen, "Pulsed and continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers", Applied Physics B, vol. 77, pp. 211-218, 2003.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers", Nature, vol. 424, pp. 511-515, Jul. 2003.

F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer and W. Zinth, "Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:Fiber system: Nonlinear pulse shortening and self referencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution", Opt. Expr., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 594-600, Mar. 2003.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication", Appl Phy. Lett., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 647-649, May 1978.

J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder and A. D. Yablon, "Supercontinuum generation in ultraviolet-irradiated fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2363-2365, Oct. 2004.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, New York: Academic Press, 1999.

D. A. Simoff, R. P. Espindola, M. A. Paczkowski, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang and A. Hale, "UV-Transparent coatings for the fabrication of optical fiber gratings", Polym. Preprints, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 1289-1290, Aug. 1999.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, second ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995, ch. 2.

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder and M. F. Yan, "High power, single mode, all-fiber source of femtosecond pulses at 1550 nm and its use in supercontinuum generation", Opt. Expr., vol. 12, no. 13, pp. 3025-3034, June 2004.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler and A. J. Stentz, "Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 796-798, Jun. 2000.

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, "Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers", Opt. Expr., vol. 11, no. 20, pp. 2567 -2576, 2003.

H. Shang, "Chromatic dispersion measurement by white-light interferometry on meter-length single-mode optical fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 17, no. 17, pp. 603-605, Aug. 1981.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.