Abstract

Integration of optical interconnections on a printed circuit board (PCB) is very challenging, since compatibility should be maintained with standard PCB manufacturing technology. This paper describes the use of laser ablation, a technique already used in PCB manufacturing for drilling microvias, as a suitable technique for the fabrication of multimode polymer waveguides, micromirrors, alignment features, and microlenses. A frequency-tripled Nd-YAG laser and a KrF excimer laser are used, both mounted on the same stage, resulting in very high alignment accuracies. This paper demonstrates a parallel optical link over approximately 5-cm-long PCB integrated waveguides, fully connected using a standard MT-based connector. This proves that laser ablation can be a key technology in optical board manufacturing to reach the stringent coupling tolerances.

© 2004 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. Photonic links in ATM and optical systems (PLATO). [Online]. Available: http://dbs.cordis.lu/
  2. K. Vandeputte, P. Van Daele, E. Hoedt, J. Van Koetsem and J. Hossfeld, "Low cost multi-fiber add/drop multiplexer demonstration system", in Proc. 25th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, vol. 1, Sept. 26-30 1999, pp. 112-113.
  3. J. Hossfeld, et al. "Micro-optical components for parallel optical networks", in Proc. 1998 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting , July 1998, pp. 39-40.
  4. E. Griese, "Optical interconnection technology for PCB applications", PC FAB, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 20-36, June 2002.
  5. F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer and E. Griese, "3-Gb/s data transmission with GaAs VCSEL's over PCB integrated polymer waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1032-1034, Sept. 2001.
  6. Y. Ishii, S. Koike, Y. Arai and Y. Ando, "SMT-compatible large-tolerance optobumb interface for interchip optical interconnections", IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 26, pp. 122-127, May 2003.
  7. J. Moisel, J. Guttmann, H. P. Huber, B. Lunitz, M. Rode, R. Schoedlbauer and R. Bogenberger, "Polymer waveguides for 100 cm (40') optical backplanes", in Proc. SPIE-Design Fabrication Planar Optical Waveguide Devices Materials, vol. 4805, July 2002, pp. 98- 105.
  8. M. Popall, A. Zabek, M. E. Robertsson, S. Valizadeh, O. J. Hagel, R. Buestrich, R. Nagel, L. Cergel, D. Lambert and M. Schaub, "ORMOCER S-inorganic-organic hybrid materials for e/o-interconnection-technology", Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., vol. 354, pp. 711-730, 2000.
  9. R. Houbertz, G. Domann, C. Cronauer, A. Schmitt, H. Martin, J.-U. Park, L. Fröhlich, R. Buestrich, M. Popall, U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Wächter and A. Bräuer, "Inorganic-organic hybrid materials for application in optical devices", Thin Solid Films, vol. 442, pp. 194-200, 2003.
  10. U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Wachter, A. Brauer, L. Frohlich, R. Houbertz and M. Popall, "New wafer-scale fabrication method for stacked optical waveguide interconnects and 3D micro-optic structures using photo responsive (inorganic-organic hybrid) polymers", Optical Materials, vol. 21, pp. 475-483, 2002.
  11. P. Van Daele, P. Geerinck, G. Van Steenberge, S. Van Put and M. Cauwe, "Laser ablation as an enabling technology for opto-boards", in Proc. IEEE 53rd Electronic Components Technology Conf. , May 2003, pp. 1140-1146.
  12. M. Born and E. Wolf, "Principles of optics," in Basic Properties of the Electromagnetic Field, Cambridge: U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999, ch. 1.
  13. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Orlando, FL: Academic, 1985.
  14. T. Coosemans, A. Van Hove, R. Bockstaele, K. Vandeputte, L. Vanwassenhove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, P. Van Daele and J. Van Koetsem, "MT (TM)-compatible connectorization of VCSEL and RCLED arrays to plastic optical fiber ribbon for low cost parallel datalinks", Materials Science Semiconductor Processing , vol. 3, no. 5-6, pp. 475-480, Oct.-Dec. 2000.
  15. K. Naessens, H. Ottevaere, R. Baets, P. Van Daele and H. Thienpont, "Direct writing of microlenses in polycarbonate with excimer laser ablation", Appl. Opt. , vol. 42, no. 31, pp. 6349-6359, Nov. 1, 2003.

Other

Photonic links in ATM and optical systems (PLATO). [Online]. Available: http://dbs.cordis.lu/

K. Vandeputte, P. Van Daele, E. Hoedt, J. Van Koetsem and J. Hossfeld, "Low cost multi-fiber add/drop multiplexer demonstration system", in Proc. 25th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, vol. 1, Sept. 26-30 1999, pp. 112-113.

J. Hossfeld, et al. "Micro-optical components for parallel optical networks", in Proc. 1998 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting , July 1998, pp. 39-40.

E. Griese, "Optical interconnection technology for PCB applications", PC FAB, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 20-36, June 2002.

F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer and E. Griese, "3-Gb/s data transmission with GaAs VCSEL's over PCB integrated polymer waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1032-1034, Sept. 2001.

Y. Ishii, S. Koike, Y. Arai and Y. Ando, "SMT-compatible large-tolerance optobumb interface for interchip optical interconnections", IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 26, pp. 122-127, May 2003.

J. Moisel, J. Guttmann, H. P. Huber, B. Lunitz, M. Rode, R. Schoedlbauer and R. Bogenberger, "Polymer waveguides for 100 cm (40') optical backplanes", in Proc. SPIE-Design Fabrication Planar Optical Waveguide Devices Materials, vol. 4805, July 2002, pp. 98- 105.

M. Popall, A. Zabek, M. E. Robertsson, S. Valizadeh, O. J. Hagel, R. Buestrich, R. Nagel, L. Cergel, D. Lambert and M. Schaub, "ORMOCER S-inorganic-organic hybrid materials for e/o-interconnection-technology", Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst., vol. 354, pp. 711-730, 2000.

R. Houbertz, G. Domann, C. Cronauer, A. Schmitt, H. Martin, J.-U. Park, L. Fröhlich, R. Buestrich, M. Popall, U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Wächter and A. Bräuer, "Inorganic-organic hybrid materials for application in optical devices", Thin Solid Films, vol. 442, pp. 194-200, 2003.

U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Wachter, A. Brauer, L. Frohlich, R. Houbertz and M. Popall, "New wafer-scale fabrication method for stacked optical waveguide interconnects and 3D micro-optic structures using photo responsive (inorganic-organic hybrid) polymers", Optical Materials, vol. 21, pp. 475-483, 2002.

P. Van Daele, P. Geerinck, G. Van Steenberge, S. Van Put and M. Cauwe, "Laser ablation as an enabling technology for opto-boards", in Proc. IEEE 53rd Electronic Components Technology Conf. , May 2003, pp. 1140-1146.

M. Born and E. Wolf, "Principles of optics," in Basic Properties of the Electromagnetic Field, Cambridge: U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999, ch. 1.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Orlando, FL: Academic, 1985.

T. Coosemans, A. Van Hove, R. Bockstaele, K. Vandeputte, L. Vanwassenhove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, P. Van Daele and J. Van Koetsem, "MT (TM)-compatible connectorization of VCSEL and RCLED arrays to plastic optical fiber ribbon for low cost parallel datalinks", Materials Science Semiconductor Processing , vol. 3, no. 5-6, pp. 475-480, Oct.-Dec. 2000.

K. Naessens, H. Ottevaere, R. Baets, P. Van Daele and H. Thienpont, "Direct writing of microlenses in polycarbonate with excimer laser ablation", Appl. Opt. , vol. 42, no. 31, pp. 6349-6359, Nov. 1, 2003.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.