Abstract

Accelerated-aging studies of chirped Bragg gratings written in deuterium-loaded germano-silicate fibers were carried out using isothermal and continuous isochronal anneal methods. The master aging curve obtained from the isothermal decay is explained using the Arrhenius-rate-model-based equation. An empirical polynomial function was used to fit the continuous isochronal anneal data. The estimated attempt frequency (nu) values from the two anneal methods were found to agree well within error. Further, the model-based calculations were found to predict postanneal long-term behavior of the gratings extremely well. Implications of the two anneal methods to accurately predict the thermal stability of chirped fiber Bragg gratings are discussed in light of rapid and reliable qualification of different types of gratings written in different fibers.

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Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Stone, "Interactions of hydrogen and deuterium with silica optical fibers: A review", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 5, pp. 712-733, May 1987.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker and D. Goodchild, "Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium codoped silica fiber", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1470-1477, Aug. 1997.

S. Kannan, J. Z. Y. Guo and P. J. Lemaire, "Thermal stability analysis of UV-induced fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1478-1483, Aug. 1997.

K. Sugden, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, R. W. Fallon, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm and I. Bennion, "Fabrication and characterization of bandpass filters based on concatenated chirped fiber gratings", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, pp. 1424-1432, Aug. 1997 .

Other (25)

J. F. Brennan, "Dispersion management with long-length fiber Bragg gratings", in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. '03, Atlanta, GA, 2003, pp. 637- 638.

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgeard and H. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 78, pp. 2940-2945, 1995.

I. Riant, S. Borne and P. Sansonetti, "Dependence of fiber Bragg grating thermal stability on grating fabrication process", in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. '96, San Jose, CA, 1996, pp. 86- 87.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced Bragg gratings", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, pp. 73-88, 1994.

D. L. Williams and R. P. Smith, "Accelerated lifetime tests on UV written intra-core gratings in boron germania codoped silica fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 2120-2121, 1995.

R. J. Egan, H. G. Inglis, P. Hill, P. A. Krug and F. Ouellette, "Effects of hydrogen loading and grating strength on the thermal stability of fiber Bragg gratings", in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. '96, San Jose, CA, 1996, pp. 83-84.

G. Robert and I. Riant, "Demonstration of two distributions of defect centers in hydrogen-loaded high germanium content fibers", in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. '96, San Jose, CA, 1996, pp. 180-181.

I. Riant and B. Poumellec, "Thermal decay of gratings written in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 1603-1604, 1998.

S. Ishikawa, A. Inoue, M. Shigehara, T. Enomoto, T. Ito, M. Harumoto and H. Kanamori, "The thermal decay properties of the UV-induced refractive index change of fiber gratings", SEI Tech. Rev., vol. 50, pp. 114-123, 2000.

J. Rathje, M. Kristensen and J. E. Pedersen, "Continuous anneal method for characterizing the thermal stability of ultraviolet Bragg gratings", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 88, pp. 1050-1055, 2000.

J. F. Brennan and D. L. LaBrake, "Realization of > 10-m-long chirped fiber Bragg gratings", Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity,Poling Glass Waveguides, vol. 33, pp. 128-130, 1999.

J. F. Brennan, E. Hernandez, J. Valenti, P. G. Sinha, M. R. Matthews, D. E. Elder, G. A. Beauchesne and C. H. Byrd, "Dispersion and dispersion-slope corrections with a fiber Bragg grating over the full C-band", in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. '01, Anaheim, CA, 2001,Postdeadline paper,. p. PD-12.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque and B. Poumellec, "Bragg grating inscriptions within strained monomode high NA germania-doped fibers: part I. Experimentation", J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., vol. 30, pp. 40-52, 1997.

P. J. Lemaire, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases", Opt. Eng., vol. 30, pp. 780-789, 1991.

"Generic Requirements for Fiber Optic Dispersion Compensators", GR-2854-CORE, Dec. 1997.

R. W. Lee, R. C. Frank and D. E. Swets, "Diffusion of hydrogen and deuterium in fused quartz", J. Chem. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1062-1071, 1962.

J. F. Brennan, D. Sloan and D. L. LaBrake, "The behavior of silica optical fibers exposed to very high pressure hydrogen environments", OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (TOPS) , vol. 29, pp. 286-291, 1999.

B. Poumellec, "Links between writing and erasure (or stability) of Bragg gratings in disordered media", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 239, pp. 108-115, 1998.

M. J. LuValle, L. R. Copeland, S. R. Kannan, J. B. Judkins and P. J. Lemaire, "A strategy for extrapolation in accelerated testing", Bell Labs Tech. J., pp. 139-147, July-Sept. 1998.

B. Poumellec, P. Niay and T. Taunay, "Stress dependent kinetics of UV-induced refractive index change in germanosilicate fibers", SPIE, vol. 2998, pp. 36-48, 1997.

B. Poumellec, P. Bernage and I. Riant, "Mechanisms of refractive index change under UV irradiation in some doped SiO2 core optical fibers", SPIE, vol. 2841, pp. 96-108, 1996.

"Originlab Functions Database, Ver. 6.0", Microcal software,Inc., Northampton, MA,

A. Hidayat, Q. Wang, P. Niay, M. Douay, B. Poumellec, F. Kherbouche and I. Riant, "Temperature-induced reversible changes in the spectral characteristics of fiber Bragg gratings", Appl. Opt. , vol. 40, pp. 2632-2642, 2001.

G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, "Bragg grating formation and germanosilicate fiber photosensitivity", SPIE, vol. 1516, pp. 185-199, 1991.

M. Douay, E. Fertein, W. X. Xie, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon and T. Georges, "Thermal hysteresis of Bragg wavelengths of intra-core fiber gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 1331-1334, Nov. 1993.

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