Abstract

The radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) in germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers was measured at 1.55 and 1.31 µm after a pulsed X-ray irradiation and at 1.55 µm during and after a steady-state gamma-ray irradiation. The influence of codoping the fiber cladding with germanium (Ge), phosphorus (P), and fluorine (F) on the sensitivity of Ge-doped core fibers was characterized. P-codoping makes it possible to decrease the RIA for short times (10^-6 s - 10^-3 s) post-pulse. However, P-codoped fibers exhibit larger values of permanent RIA than P-free fibers after transient exposure and are inadequate for a steady-state environment. The impact of F-codoping depends on the other codopants incorporated in the fiber cladding, but its addition seems to be deleterious for the radiation hardening of the germanosilicate fiber at the two tested wavelengths. Ge-codoping increases the sensitivity of P-, F-codoped fibers under X-rays and steady-state gamma-ray irradiation, whereas it decreases the RIA in F-doped ones. Some hypotheses on the creation mechanisms and properties of the color centers related to these three codopants are proposed.

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  2. E. W. Taylor, E. J. Friebele, H. Henschel, R. H. West, J. A. Krinski and C. Barnes, "Interlaboratory comparison of radiation-induced attenuation in optical fibers. Part II: Steady-state exposures", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 967-976, June 1990.
  3. E. J. Friebele, P. B. Lyons, J. Blackburn, H. Henschel, A. Johan, J. A. Krinski, A. Robinson, W. Schneider, D. Smith, E. W. Taylor, G. T. Beauregard, R. H. West and P. Zagarino, "Interlaboratory comparison of radiation-induced attenuation in optical fibers. Part III: Transient exposures", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 977-989, June 1990.
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  5. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier and Y. Ouerdane, "Influence of cladding codopants on gamma pulsed radiation sensitivity of germanosilicate optical fibers", in Proc. Conf. Radiation Its Effects Components Systems (RADECS02), Padova, Italy, 2002, pp. 166-168.
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  18. G. R. Atkins, Z. H. Wang, D. R. McKenzie, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole and H. W. Simmons, "Control of defects in optical fibers-A study using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 1793-1801, Nov. 1993 .
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  20. S. Girard, I. Trenteseaux, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter and J.-L. Derep, "Determination of the radial distribution of attenuation in single mode optical fibers", Acta Optica Sinica, vol. 23, Supp., pp. 51-52, 2003.
  21. S. Girard, I. Trenteseaux, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-L. Derep and L. Thonnérieux, "Radial distribution of attenuation in gamma-irradiated single-mode optical fibers", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 83, pp. 220-222, 2003.
  22. E. J. Friebele, M. E. Gingerich and D. L. Griscom, "Survivability of optical fibers in space", in Proc. SPIE Optical Materials Reliability Testing , vol. 1791, Boston, MA, 1992, pp. 177-188.
  23. T. Kakuta, K. Ara and K. Sanada, "Radiation resistance of fluorine doped silica core fibers", Fujikura Technical Rev., pp. 17-19, 1995 .
  24. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azaïs, P. Charre and M. Vié, "Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen, germanium doped and pure silica core optical fibers", Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, Beam Interact. Mater. At., vol. 215, pp. 187-195, 2004.
  25. E. W. Mies and L. Soto, "Characterization of the radiation sensitivity of single mode optical fibers", in Proc. Int. Conf. Integrated Optics Optical Fiber Communication-Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (IOOC-ECOC'85), Venice, Italy, 1985, pp. 255- 258.

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

E. W. Taylor, E. J. Friebele, H. Henschel, R. H. West, J. A. Krinski and C. Barnes, "Interlaboratory comparison of radiation-induced attenuation in optical fibers. Part II: Steady-state exposures", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 967-976, June 1990.

E. J. Friebele, P. B. Lyons, J. Blackburn, H. Henschel, A. Johan, J. A. Krinski, A. Robinson, W. Schneider, D. Smith, E. W. Taylor, G. T. Beauregard, R. H. West and P. Zagarino, "Interlaboratory comparison of radiation-induced attenuation in optical fibers. Part III: Transient exposures", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 977-989, June 1990.

G. R. Atkins, Z. H. Wang, D. R. McKenzie, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole and H. W. Simmons, "Control of defects in optical fibers-A study using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 1793-1801, Nov. 1993 .

R. H. West, "A local view of radiation effects in fiber optics", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 155-164, Feb. 1988.

Other (21)

E. J. Friebele, "Photonics in the space environment", in Proc. Nuclear Space Radiation Effects Conf. (NSREC91) , San Diego, CA, 1991, pp. III-1-III-25.

D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich and E. J. Friebele, "Model for the dose, dose-rate and temperature dependence of radiation induced loss in optical fibers", IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 41, pp. 523-527, June 1994 .

P. Borgermans, "Spectral and kinetic analysis of radiation induced optical attenuation in silica: Toward intrinsic fiber optic dosimetry", Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Applied Science, Vrije Universiteit, Brussel, The Netherlands, 2001.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich and K. J. Long, "Optical fiber waveguides in radiation environments, II", Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, Beam Interact. Mater. At., vol. 229, pp. 355-369, 1984.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele and K. J. Long, "Fundamental defect centers in glass: Electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 54, pp. 3743-3762, 1983.

G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, H. W. Simmons and C. E. Nockolds, "The influence of codopants and fabrication conditions on germanium defects in optical fiber preforms", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 43 -46, Jan. 1992.

E. J. Friebele, E. W. Taylor, G. T. Beauregard, J. A. Wall and C. Barnes, "Interlaboratory comparison of radiation-induced attenuation in optical fibers. Part I: Steady-state exposures", J. Lightwave Technol. , vol. 6, pp. 165-171, Feb. 1988.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Sokolov and V. V. Koltashev, "UV-irradiation-induced structural transformation in phosphosilicate glass fiber", Opt. Lett. , vol. 23, no. 18, pp. 1447-1449, 1998.

S. Girard, I. Trenteseaux, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter and J.-L. Derep, "Determination of the radial distribution of attenuation in single mode optical fibers", Acta Optica Sinica, vol. 23, Supp., pp. 51-52, 2003.

S. Girard, I. Trenteseaux, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-L. Derep and L. Thonnérieux, "Radial distribution of attenuation in gamma-irradiated single-mode optical fibers", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 83, pp. 220-222, 2003.

E. J. Friebele, M. E. Gingerich and D. L. Griscom, "Survivability of optical fibers in space", in Proc. SPIE Optical Materials Reliability Testing , vol. 1791, Boston, MA, 1992, pp. 177-188.

T. Kakuta, K. Ara and K. Sanada, "Radiation resistance of fluorine doped silica core fibers", Fujikura Technical Rev., pp. 17-19, 1995 .

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azaïs, P. Charre and M. Vié, "Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen, germanium doped and pure silica core optical fibers", Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, Beam Interact. Mater. At., vol. 215, pp. 187-195, 2004.

E. W. Mies and L. Soto, "Characterization of the radiation sensitivity of single mode optical fibers", in Proc. Int. Conf. Integrated Optics Optical Fiber Communication-Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (IOOC-ECOC'85), Venice, Italy, 1985, pp. 255- 258.

C. C. Harrington, C. G. Askins and E. J. Friebele, "Transient radiation induced attenuation and luminescence in optical fibers", in SPIE Proc. Fiber Optics Reliability: Benign Adverse Environments II, vol. 992, 1988, pp. 15-23.

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier and Y. Ouerdane, "Influence of cladding codopants on gamma pulsed radiation sensitivity of germanosilicate optical fibers", in Proc. Conf. Radiation Its Effects Components Systems (RADECS02), Padova, Italy, 2002, pp. 166-168.

E. J. Friebele, "Correlation of single mode fiber fabrication factors and radiation response", Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC, NRL/MR/6505-92-6939, Feb. 28, 1992.

A. Johan, B. Azaïs, C. Malaval, G. Raboisson and M. Roche, "ASTERIX, un nouveau moyen pour la simulation des effets de débit de dose sur l'électronique", Ann. Phys., vol. 14, pp. 379-393, 1989.

R. H. West, "Predicting the radiation induced loss in Ge doped optical fibers at different temperatures", in Proc. Conf. Radiation Its Effects Components Systems (RADECS99), Fontevraud, France, 1999, pp. 483-490.

E. J. Friebele, G. H. Sigel and M. E. Gingerich, "Radiation-induced optical absorption spectra of fiber optic waveguides in the 0.4-1.7 µ m region," in Fiber Optics, B. Bendov, and S. S. Mitra, Eds. New York: Plenum, 1979, pp. 355-367.

E. J. Friebele, M. E. Gingerich and K. J. Long, "Radiation damage of optical fiber waveguides at long wavelengths", Appl. Opt., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 547-553, 1982.

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